The words "yang baru"?
I read Indonesian quora a lot and try to translate word by word the questions and stuff, and the words "yang baru" come up a lot, apparently yang means 'that" (how??) and baru means new.
The question is "Apa fakta menyedihkan yang baru kamu pahami setelah menjadi orang dewasa?"
Well why do these words go at that spot?? And what exactly do they mean? I understand the rest (i think) but why do they go at that spot and what do they mean?
Also, how would you group the words? I try to do that with everything but I can't group these...
Apa fakta menyedihkan yang baru kamu pahami setelah menjadi orang dewasa?
It's grouped like this :
[Apa fakta menyedihkan]
[yang baru kamu pahami setelah menjadi orang dewasa?]
[What sad fact]
[that you just understand after becoming an adult]
'menyedihkan' is a verb, (active transitive and causative) but it's translated as an adjective.
'menyedihkan' = to cause sadness (to someone) (causative)
The second group is a "yang" clause.
It uses the passive type 2.
yang baru kamu pahami = that you just understand.
setelah menjadi orang dewasa = after becoming an adult.
It's better (and easier) to see the second group as two separate groups.
Like this :
[Apa fakta menyedihkan]
[yang baru kamu pahami]
[setelah menjadi orang dewasa?]
I would group "yang baru" with the first bit so "Apa fakta menyedihkan yang baru" translated as "What are the new saddening facts" or more literal but weird "What are the saddening facts that are new" . It is quite a weird concurance of words for english. I would write the whole thing as more " When becoming an adult what new things did you learn that made you sad". But a good more literal translation would be "What sad new facts did you come to know after becoming an adult"
Your translation is incorrect.
You want to translate 'baru' as 'new', as an adjective modifying the noun 'fakta'.
It can only be translated like that if 'baru' has a different position in the sentence, like this:
What sad new facts .... ==> Apa fakta baru yang menyedihkan ...
However, that is not the position in the original sentence.
In the original sentence, 'baru' is not an adjective, it's an adverb modifying the verb in the 'yang' clause:
yang 'baru' kamu pahami = that you 'just' understand.
Maybe it's easier to easy the difference if the sentence is transformed into an aactive, declarative sentence, like this :
Kamu baru memahami fakta yang menyedihkan setelah menjadi orang dewasa.
You just/only understand the sad fact after becoming an adult.
'baru' is not an adjective modifying the noun 'fakta'.
'baru' is an adverb modifying the verb 'memahami'.
Here are more examples where 'baru' functions as an adverb modifying the verb.
Used like this, it cannot be translated as 'new':
Kamu baru membeli celana = You just bought trousers.
Kamu baru pulang dari pantai = You just returned home from the beach.
Here is more info about the word order in a noun phrase:
Adjectives, Noun Phrase, Tips & Notes, Addendum.
Here is more info about 'siapa' and 'apa'.
It's explained in that topic why a question like this should be followed by a 'yang' clause.
Apa, Siapa, Tips & Notes, Addendum.