"Your kitchen has a bowl."
Translation:La tua cucina ha una ciotola.
Questo è assolutamente vero, e fai bene a dirlo. Si potrebbe più giustamente applicare la struttura di questa frase riferendola non agli oggetti contenuti nella cucina ma alle parti che ne compongono la struttura. La mia cucina ha le piastrelle blu, la mia cucina ha un'ampia finestra, la mia cucina ha il soffitto basso.
This is absolutely true, and you are right to say it. The structure of this sentence could more correctly be applied by referring it not to the objects contained in the kitchen, but to the parts that make up its structure. My kitchen has blue tiles, my kitchen has a large window, my kitchen has a low ceiling.
No. Kitchen is always a noun. "has" is the verb. In Italian, almost every subject ("noun" or "possessive adjective + noun") requires an article before. The only case which does not follow this rule is when the noun is actually a personal name (i.e.: "Matteo has a bowl" - "Matteo ha una ciotola", where Matteo is a human name....mine, in this case :) ).
"Kitchen " is always a noun, but "cucina" can also be the 3rd person singular of "cucinare" an Italian verb which means "to cook ". http://context.reverso.net/translation/italian-english/cucina http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/italian-english/cucina?showCookiePolicy=true
With singular family members, the definite article is generally not used, but "la tua mamma" is an exception. There are other exceptions:
Cietolla does not exist in Italian.It does exist 'ciotola' or 'scodella' or some other forms (you could see them with Google Translate).The context of usage would be useful: normally 'ciotola' is used for a generic container,otherwise 'scodella' is generically used to eat breakfast.
Everyone gets this question presented to them differently. And those who do get it as multiple choice get different options to choose from.
That said, although "La tua cucina ha una banana" is grammatically correct, it does not mean "Your kitchen has a bowl". It means "Your kitchen has a banana", and that is not what we were asked to translate.
Because Italian is not English with Italian words, and English is not Italian with English words. They are two separate languages with two different sets of grammar and syntax rules. In English, we say "your kitchen" and not "the your kitchen", and in Italian they say "la tua cucina" and not "tua cucina".
The point here is that you just need to learn "this is how they say it" and rid from your mind any notion of simple word substitution.