DL transcribes the "long stick" = alif with "aa" while the fatha vowel ("slash" above the consonant) is "a." I recommend that in the next iteration of DL Arabic that in the first few lessons they provide help with the commonly accepted names for the consonants and main vowels. (When the slash is below the consonant I think it's called kasra and has an "i" sound.)
Yes! I'm not an expert, only coming from Quran Arabic. The small slash above is a fat-ha which says short "a" sound like "eh." To lengthen it, use the tall alif. The small slash below is a kasra and says "i" and to lengthen a long "ee" sound, add the yeh letter (snake with two dots below). There are also two other types of these small marks (they're called tashkeel), one called Damma for the short "u" sound, and one called sukun to indicate that you should not put a vowel after the letter at all.
In that case it would be pronounced bawab.. but you are partially right.. to get the sort uu sound therr should be a tiny و on the first ب in the word بب without the big و in the middle. (My arabic keyboard on mobile doesnt have arabic diacritics to write it for you.. sorry)
I'm kind of confused with the whole Arabic alphabet, but since the answer to this is "Bob" I immediately thought of this:
I've almost completed alphabet to and at this point I don't feel I'm being challenged to actually look at the Arabic writing and decipher it when the same names are being recycled. At this point I believe I have a fair grasp of how to decipher the sounds from these figures but I'm not giving an incentive to at this point because I've seen these names a hundred times