I've written the word in Arabic at the beginning of the comment as well. 6 is supposed to represent ط in this case, because they look alike. It's one of the less commonly used numbers in Arab Chat Alphabet; many people would simply represent this sound as "t," including me. But since we're trying to spell everything phonetically for pedagogical purposes here, it made sense to use it.
Sorry if this question does not fit to this particular lesson, but this is the first time I can make it to the forum since last lesson. Why does the "little w" in tayyid have a slash below it? I get that that's the symbol to make consonants geminate, but I thought the slash over a consonant made it be followed by an "a", so I thought it should be pronounced "tayyad"
Great question! In contemporary Arabic convention, the little slashes (called faati7ah ["opener"] and kasrah ["brokenness"], for the slash over and below respectively) come over and below the little w (shaddah ["pull"]), rather than over or below the letter itself. Quranic writing conserves an earlier tradition where the slashes behave like you would expect though. So طيِّب ("kind" [of a person], "good" [of a smell or taste]) is pronounced "6ayyib" and طيَّب ("he disinfected" [of a wound]) is pronounced "6ayyab."
Out of curiosity, are words pronounced differently in "Quranic Arabic" vs standard Arabic? I have noticed that Qur'an verses tend to have more vowelizations ("accents") vs standard Arabic. But, can the same word appear the same in standard Arabic and be pronounced (or have a different meaning) in Quranic Arabic?
There is a tradition for pronouncing the Qur'aan called "Tajweed," where some of the letters are indeed pronounced quite differently from how anybody today pronounces them. The ج and ش are quite a bit back in the mouth, for example, and ض, well, ض is a whole long story! It is supposed to be based on how those letters would have been pronounced 1400 years ago, and there are a lot of points upon which both modern linguists and Muslims reading the Qur'aan agree. As far as the peculiar diacritics in the Qur'aan go, many of them are there for the sake of extra accuracy, not to indicate any sound that you don't hear in MSA. There is a symbol for the alif at the end of أنا to indicate that it's normally short except at the end of an utterance, there is another symbol you put on an alif at the beginning of the word to indicate that it's not pronounced except at the beginning of an utterance, there is an "alif khinjariyya," which, for some reason, they are teaching you to use in this course, even though it would be really strange to use it outside of Qur'aanic writing. This alif khinjariyyah is used to indicate that there is a long "aa" sound being pronounced but not written. And then there are diacritics in the Qur'aan that kind of work as a substitute for punctuation, indicating where you're supposed to stop or start reading for the sentences to make sense. So as you can see, those accents don't really indicate any "new" information that is lacking in MSA, they just assume you know nothing about Arabic at all. Which given that most Muslims don't speak Arabic natively isn't exactly a bad idea. This way, those people can read the Qur'aan perfectly even if they learn nothing but the script.
Oh, and another thing, the Qur'aan was canonized before Arabic orthography was standardized, and that canonization, traditionally ascribed to a campaign by Uthman, the third Caliph, is considered holy by Muslims today. Some versions of the Qur'aan that don't conform to it aren't considered valid for prayer by contemporary Muslims, for example, even if it is traditionally believed that Muslims did indeed use them for prayer one day. Anyway, because of this, there are a lot of words spelt irregularly or inconsistently in Qur'aanic writing, which is especially apparent with how long vowels or semivowels are treated, like صلوة for صلاة (salaah, prayer), or كتب for كتاب (kitaab, book), and شايء being used only in certain instances to spell شيء (shayy2, thing). I'd reckon even native speakers of Arabic would have trouble reading those words without the extra diacritics. But they're supposed to be pronounced the same as the MSA words, at least if you ignore the aforementioned differences in pronouncing certain consonants.