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Technically, there should be a ٌ at the end, but this course is trying to find a middle ground between Modern Standard Arabic and spoken language, so they are dropping sounds that aren't normally spoken when, for example, an interviewer is talking in Arabic on TV. We often drop diacritics at the end of sentences while reading, too, so that's another reason why they didn't write it here.
could you elaborate on this please. What is a 'middle ground between MSA and spoken language'? because there is no real definition for 'spoken language' infact by any definition dialectical Arabic would be a set of many languages.
For instance, I am noticing a repetitive wrong pronunciation of ج in the course, it is Levantine Arabic dialectical, and say in Egyptian Arabic dialectical it is flat out wrong, and in MSA, it is also flat wrong.
It has to be either MSA or some specific dialect. Infact, dialects have their own grammar even. Why are we reinventing the wheel? I think 'middle ground between MSA and 'spoken Arabic' (whatever the latter means) will result in - well, pretty inaccurate Arabic by any understanding. It is a good idea to stick to MSA and then at a later stage maybe teach Egyptian Arabic or Gulf Arabic etc. as separate languages. (for instance, Egyptian Arabic has its own wikipedia already).
The course makers said in their announcement that they're trying to mimic the language used by an interviewer on TV. For more details you'd have to ask them.
As for the pronunciation of ج it is quite accurate. The Levantine dialect is the closest dialect to MSA. Egyptian Arabic has so many differences with MSA, that the Egyptians themselves are trying to make it into its own language. Look no further than having an "Egyptian" version of Wikipedia as proof of this. Having said that, Arabic "dialects", when looked upon objectively, are more like languages than dialects. Their differences are much greater than the difference between Spanish and Portuguese.
Nobody is reinventing the wheel. Duolingo's main goal is to teach practical language, and pure MSA can be impractical, because a lot of less educated Arabs (or children) won't even understand it. There is no "standard" middle ground. The makers of the course are trying their best, based on their experience, to insert frequently used words in dialects, because they're so often used, you can't escape them in real-life.
I understand that from a learner's perspective, one looks for a sense of regularity and rules, but life doesn't work like that. The Arab world is just as diverse as Europe is. You need to be comfortable with that fact to remove the mental block preventing you from learning it. It's going to take a long time to learn Arabic, and its many variations is one major reason for that.
Susan, when you put your mouse cursor over the words, you will get a translation. It works this way in all the Duolingo language courses. You also should read the "Tips" before each lesson. Not all the apps. have the Tips, though. You might have to read them on your computer or on the computer function of your cell phone. Glück auf!