Translation:Baku and Riga
Riga is pronounced Riga in any dialect, since it’s a name of a European city. There are just not enough letters in Arabic to represent all sounds. However, just for a heads up. You can use پ for a p sound ڤ for a v sound چ for a ch sound گ for a g sound These are not Arabic letters though, only derived from the Arabic script and used in other central Asian languages such as Persian or Urdu (maybe others as well). Arabs generally do not use them, however, for clarity like if your name is Paul you can Just so to make it clearer write پول
The funny thing is that "Riga" Is pronounced in 3 different ways during the entire course and only one of them is right. Riga is just Riga but there are inconsistencies between how it is pronounced in the question itself, how it sounds from tapping the word buttons and how it sounds differently when you tap the word. Duolingo should aim for consistency.
So Baku is a capital of Azerbaijan and Riga is a capital of Latvia. Yet why would you include these cities, since they do not have any correlation with the Arab world. Perhaps, Baku is a Muslim city, but Eastern Europe? And why not MENA cities? And frankly these are not very popular cities, no offense. A lot of people would just mistake them for names.
I don't hear any "nunation", that is an "n" sound, but I do hear the alif being pronounced "eh" rather than "aah", which I just read the other day is a Western Arabic pronunciation; especially a North African way of pronouncing alif. Duolingo says we're being taught MSA. I though there was a standard way of pronouncing the vowels in MSA, but we're getting different pronunciations of the vowels. I don't know why, though.
Update: I just got this question again on a review. Yes, there is an "n" sound at the end of "Riga" when you click on the individual words in the exercise. This is a mistake due to the TTS computer's reading of the final alef.
The Egyptian dialect pronounces "jeem'' as a hard "g" rather than "j".
Update: Something just dawned on me. If the city's name is pronounced with a hard "g", do the countries that pronounce "jeem" as "j", change to pronounce it as "g" to line up with how the country pronounces it's name, or do they stick with the "j" sound?
Probably depends if they're familiar with the city name or not, and also if there's a standard form in Arabic/their dialect for that city name, which is most likely with large old cities and/or ones that have a long trading history with theirs. Just like how in English we pronounce Paris with the final "s" sounded, because that's the standard in English, but smaller French towns and villages would be pronounced in the French style by those who know French.
Arabic pronunciation (and everything else) varies a lot from dialect to dialect. I'm assuming they're teaching us MSA (Modern Standard Arabic) like most Arabic courses. This is basically Qur'anic Arabic adapted to the modern world and is spoken in real life by nobody other than newscasters.
So I'm assuming the spelling is standard and this is the pronunciation as taught for MSA.
It's worth noting that Arabic doesn't generally have a "g" sound. Some other languages which adapted the Arabic writing system and had both "k" and "g" sounds added a new letter for the "g" sound and use this letter only for the "k" sound. For instance Persian and Urdu use گ for "g". Other languages do it differently.
This is not to say that some Arabic dialects might not always pronounce ج as "g". I don't know enough. It could also be that some pronounce it either "k" or "g" depending on context, depending on speaker, or depending on what language the word was borrowed from. Again I don't know enough.
ok you are kind of right let me explain what we are learning here is the original arabic we call it الفصحة and if you want to read any kind of arabic book not just the qurian this is the way we read it and also write the only different is due to wars and influence by other language the pronunciation had some differences in some words but if you talked with any one بالفصحة they will understand you but do not expect that they will speak to you بالفصحة and each Arab country has its differences
The problem is that there is often a confusion between MSA and Arabic dialects. If you learnt Arabic as a child, it was probably one of the dialects. Written Arabic is always MSA, which is different from dialects. Another problem is transcription. There are so many ways of transliterating or transcribing Arabic into Latin script. My advise is that you first learn the Arabic script properly and how the characters should be pronounced according to MSA. Duolingo is a help, but preferably you also need to consult a text book for Arabic language too. There are a lot on YouTube as well, but be aware that many of the instructors flavour their MSA with their local dialect. That is one of the challenges of Arabic.