In these lessons so far, I've heard "alif" pronounced "a" like in "hat", "ah" like in "father, and now "ai" like in "bait and "eh" like in "bet". I've noticed that the preceding letter seems to affect the pronunciation but I wonder if vowel markings on "alif", which we haven't learned yet, also change the pronunciation. I also wonder if Arabic, like English, has more than one (or two) pronunciations for vowels and consonants "just because" it does without a set pronunciation for all the vowels and consonants.
The "a" type vowel is affected by the consonants around it, so in this case, for "da-" the sound is "deh" because of starting with "d," and then the "-kair" sound is the combination of an "eh" sound with an "r" sound.
On the subject of preceding consonants, for most consonants, the "a" vowel after them will be pronounced like "eh." There are some consonants that always make "a" pronounced like "aw" instead. (The letters for r, gh, kh, and the "thick" s, d, t, and dh, for example.)
ok you are kind of right but also there is something called تشكيل which is the dashes or o that lay above or under the letter and the letter before and after like ex:دْاكَارْ the د has a zero above it so when the alif comes after it will be a short vowel actually what we pronounce is the dash not the alif but the ك has a dash above it so when the alif comes after it will be along vowel and about the letter you said خ ط ض غ ظ well i can not explain it except by this there is five ways to pronounce it when they have dash above them and alif after it it will be the highist to pronounce like from the back of your throught i hope this helped you a little