"سامْية دُكْتورة أَمْريكِيّة جَيِّدة."
Translation:Samia is a good American doctor.
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Can someone explain please the 'ti' and the 'tun' we hear between words? What does it mean?
They are case endings. They tell us whether the word is nominative, accusative, or genitive, like endings in Russian. We don't write short vowels in Arabic except as optional diacritics, and in the case of that "-n" sound found in the most common case endings, we also made diacritics for it, so endings with short vowels are not written explicitly in most Arabic texts. And when reading out loud, Arabs often ignore them nowadays, or when they try to use them, end up misusing them.
The former if you're speaking with a Levantine (Syrian, Lebanese, etc.) accent, the latter if you're speaking with a Gulf (Saudi, Kuwaiti, etc.) accent. Standard Arabic does not have an accent of its own, everybody pronounces the vowels and consonants like they do in their own native dialect.
What are the rules for placing un behind a word? Why behind doctor and American and not behind good?
'Good' is at the end of a sentence, and ending words don't seem to get noonation.