Translation:a door and a house
If you put your mouse's cursor over the Arabic words that have dashes under them in the exercises, you'll see the definitions. I haven't yet gotten the requirement to translate Arabic words into English without first having seen the words. If you do, it's not a big problem. You get the question wrong the first time, you then see the correction, you make note of the correct answer, and go on from there. That's how Duolingo does it. Don't give up, though.
(1) Originally Arabic is not written with any "additional character"/Harakaat (like باب). Furthermore in Ancient age, there was no dot at all. So, "ba", "ta", and "tha" are written in the same way. "No additional character" is for advanced learners.
(2) "A few characters" means: to help us to read it properly, oftentimes is for intermediate learners.
(3) "Full characters" are how the sounds should be pronounced correctly, like when we see the complete characters in each word in Quran. Full characters help us to avoid any mistake when we read the text, and are for beginners. For example: baab(un) بَابٌ
Why is there a Fatiha over the ‘و ‘? Can someone explain what it means when my google search states that it precedes the consonant of a long vowel? If this is true, then the ‘و’ is preceding the long sounding ‘ب’? And the fatha over the ‘ب’ is preceding the long sounding ‘ي’? Thanks.
First, the complete Harakaat for that sentence is
"baa-b(un) wa bayt(un)" - Formal or "baab wa bayt" - Informal
The fatHa over "و" (wawu) makes the "a" vowel, so we pronounce وَ as "wa", which means "and".
The و produces a long sound "uu" only when it is in sukun "وْ" and preceded by a letter with Damma, for example, "بُوْ" buu. If وْ is preceded by a letter with fatHa, the sound will be "au". For example, بَوْ "bau".
This ruling is the same for the "ي" ya. It produces a long sound "ii" only when it is in sukun and preceded by a letter with kasra, for example, بِيْ "bii". If the ya sukun is preceded by a letter with fatHa or Damma, it will produce the "ai" or "ui" sound, for example, "bai" بَيْ or "bui" بُيْ.
Note: someone has given your comment a downvote, I don't know why someone dislikes a good question! So, I give you an upvote :)) And, I hope both (the explanation above and the upvote) are useful.