In normal non-formal Arabic "(some) cold chicken" is "dajaaj baarid" and "the cold chicken" is "ad-dajaaj al-baarid".
But formal Arabic nouns and adjectives use vowel endings to show whether the noun is the subject of the sentence, an object, or something that is posessed or related to another noun. Formal arabic nouns that don't have "al" at the beginning, meaning "the" should end in a (normally unwritten) "n" sound, which can be translated as "a" or "an" or "some".
So in formal arabic you have:
dajaajun baaridun jayyidun = (some) good cold chicken
dajaajun baaridun jayyid = Some cold chicken is good.
ad-dajaaju l-baaridu jayyid = The cold chicken is good.
ad-dajaaju l-baaridu l-jayyidu = the good cold chicken
ad-dajaaju l-baaridu l-jayyid = The cold chicken is the good (chicken).
akal dajaajan baarid = He ate cold chicken.
akal ad-dajaaja l-baarid = He ate the cold chicken.
dajaajin baaridin = of cold chicken
ad-dajaaji l-baaridi = of the cold chicken
Note how the adjective always has the same ending as the noun it describes, except when it's the end of the sentence. The computer gets this wrong a lot and pronounces nouns and their adjectives so that they disagree because it's switching between very formal and vernacular Arabic between words, and you just can't do that in real life.
All of these explanations are do helpful and detailed. Thank you to everyone for taking the time to explain.
I don't pretend to understand it all yet but I'll be coming back here.
I wish we could favourite or save comments for future reference ... Or is there already a way that I'm unaware of?...
Subjects, the starting names and the followed ones that gives information about the starting one, must end with " ٌ (un)" or " ُ (u)"
So " ٌ (un)" indicates that the name is indefinite cause there is no indefinite article in arabic there is just the defenite one "ال (al)=the" ( "al" like "the" is used with feminin and masculin names) with the defenite article, the "un" changes to "u".
" ُ (u) " is called "damma( ضمّة), (ض is an amplified "d(د)" )
" ٌ (u) " is called (dammatayn(ضمّتن) ( wich literaly means 2 damma)
Later you will discover the fatha, fathatayn ; kasra, kasratayn
NotaBene: these short vowels ( called all together حركات ) are only used with singular names OR with irrigular plural names.
N.B: the fatha damma and kasra can be used with verbs but now lets stop there
Duo, let me copy the notes so I may study them.
Also Duo, you spent so much time teaching some alphabet, then spent little time and allowed no explanation of some others. Now we go into phrases with no transition at all. Please, break it down as you have done in other languages.
Another recommendation, allow text to be enlarged or print it larger while we are learning.
And are we being acculturated with "a generous husband"? I've not seen this phrase in any other of your languages I've studied. It feels uncomfortable to read over and over.
They're teaching the letters in a manageable order. I have been learning Arabic in university and this is the exact order we used there as well. It is not some kind of "acculturation".... it's just teaching you words. If you redo lessons, you will notice that it will randomly swap nouns and adjectives
No. In the case of 'the cold chicken' you'd instead say 'ad-dajaaju l-baaridu'.
dajaaja or dajaaje is "a chicken"
dajaaj is the collective "some chicken" as in food or "some chicken meat"
dajaajaat is multiple chickens.
It can be pronounced dagaag in Egypt and dayaay around the gulf.
And there's another word, farkha, فرخة, meaning "a hen", with the plural form firaakh, فراخ, in Egypt.
Rooster is diik, roosters is diyuuk.
katkuut is chick, kataakiit is chicks.
I'm getting to feel that the approach to Arabic on Duolingo is hopeless. I was doing OK at first until this lesson, where we started getting words, letters, and grammatical constructions that have not been introduced. I guess I prefer a more formal approach to leaning a language. This being "thrown in the deep end" and having to guess is not helping.
In English, "a cold chicken" and "cold chicken" are two different things. "A cold chicken" is talking about a particular chicken. It could be one shivering chicken out in the barnyard or one particular whole chicken on the kitchen counter that is not hot.
"Cold chicken", on the other hand is a "mass noun", we don't know "how much" chicken is being talked about, just that it is "chicken" and that it is food, not an animal, that we are talking about. We say: "There is a (one) chicken running around outside" or "There are many chickens running around outside". "I bought a (one) frozen chicken at the store" or "I bought two frozen chickens at the store". But, if we say "cold chicken", without the "a" we are talking about chicken meat, not one whole bird: "We are having 'cold chicken' and potato salad for lunch."