Could someone please explain to this beginner how and why the ending changes?
In normal non-formal Arabic "(some) cold chicken" is "dajaaj baarid" and "the cold chicken" is "ad-dajaaj al-baarid".
But formal Arabic nouns and adjectives use vowel endings to show whether the noun is the subject of the sentence, an object, or something that is posessed or related to another noun. Formal arabic nouns that don't have "al" at the beginning, meaning "the" should end in a (normally unwritten) "n" sound, which is translated as "a/an".
So in formal arabic you have:
dajaajun baaridun jayyidun = good cold chicken.
dajaajun baaridun jayyid = some cold chicken is good
ad-dajaaju l-baaridu jayyid = "The cold chicken is good."
ad-dajaaju l-baaridu l-jayyidu = the good cold chicken
ad-dajaaju l-baaridu l-jayyid = "The cold chicken is the good (chicken)."
akal dajaajan baarid = He ate cold chicken
akal ad-dajaaja l-baarid = He ate the cold chicken.
dajaajin baaridin = of cold chicken
ad-dajaaji l-baaridi = of the cold chicken
Note how the adjective always has the same ending as the noun it describes, except when it's the end of the sentence. The computer gets this wrong a lot and pronounces nouns and their adjectives so that they disagree or so that the because it's switching between very formal and vernacular Arabic between words, and you just can't do that in real life.
In this case just 'dajaaj'. If it was "the cold chicken" then you would say 'dajaajun baarid'
Subjects, the starting names and the followed ones that gives information about the starting one, must end with " ٌ (un)" or " ُ (u)"
So " ٌ (un)" indicates that the name is indefinite cause there is no indefinite article in arabic there is just the defenite one "ال (al)=the" ( "al" like "the" is used with feminin and masculin names) with the defenite article, the "un" changes to "u".
" ُ (u) " is called "damma( ضمّة), (ض is an amplified "d(د)" )
" ٌ (u) " is called (dammatayn(ضمّتن) ( wich literaly means 2 damma)
Later you will discover the fatha, fathatayn ; kasra, kasratayn
NotaBene: these short vowels ( called all together حركات ) are only used with singular names OR with irrigular plural names.
N.B: the fatha damma and kasra can be used with verbs but now lets stop there
It dajaaj. And yes you would but it's a grammatical ending so it's not always 'un'
And you should know that if you stopped dajaajun you will pronounce it again as dajaaj
It probably depends on the variety of Arabic. In Lebanese, which is within the Levantine branch of Arabic, 'chicken' is usually pronounced /dʒe:ʒ/ (in one syllable) in natural, everyday language.
I'm curious to know how you said Lebanese pronounce chicken, but I haven't yet learned how to pronounce all the new symbols that are being used. I've never even seen the colon symbol before. Could you also write it a different way for those of us who are "new symbol" challenged? Thank you.
The symbols I used to write /dʒe:ʒ/ are from the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), a 19th century system created to represent the sounds of spoken language. We were taught the IPA at school when we started learning English, and I must say it has been tremendously helpful for teaching/learning exactly how to pronounce words. Nowadays, what with online audio dictionaries, not to mention the vast array of studying resources available, learning pronunciation has become easier.
'dʒ' represents the J as in 'John' and /ˈʒ', the last sound in 'garage', 'rouge' or 'beige'. The colon is used for a long vowel sound, so 'e:' would be like the 'e' in 'jet' but longer (or like 'air' in British English). So, to make a long story even longer, /dʒe:ʒ/ is pronounced like a cross between the words 'jet' and 'beige', dropping the 't' and the 'b'. Phew! Learning the IPA is really worth it, IMHO.
it is now written دجاجٌ بارِد
in this exercise i suspect that`s the "un" everyone talks about?