Could someone please help me understand how/when the vowel placed on top of ه in هذا is used? I can't find it among the Arabic letters on my phone, I'll call it a "mini alif" for now. What is it caled (so I can search for some more info)? What is the difference between using the"mini alif' compared to alif ا. They are both long "aa" (while fatha َ is "a")? Thanks for helping a beginner out!
The first step is to recognize that the word "this" is a trap for the unwary. It could be used as a pronoun, the way one uses "he", "she", or "one". But it could also be used as a determiner, as in "this house". The second step is to understand idafah constructions; there is an article about "idafah" in Wikipedia. To use "this" as a determiner in Arabic requires an idafah construction, which implies that the following noun has to have the definite article "al-". There is no "al-" in the example, so the "this" must be a pronoun, not a determiner. The third step is to diagram the sentence with all that information: [this] [bathroom] [spacious] becomes [this] [bathroom [spacious]] simply because it cannot possibly be [this bathroom] [spacious], because of the missing "al-". So the sentence is an equational sentence with the verb "to be" missing in the middle: [this] [is] [bathroom [spacious]]. And in idiomatic English, that is "This is a spacious bathroom."