"جودي بِنْت أَمْريكِيّة مُمْتازة."
Translation:Judy is an amazing American girl.
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The reason what you wrote is not correct is because in English, adjectives are used in a certain order that is different from the order Arabic uses. There is a prescribed order for this which we English speakers know but can't easily explain without looking it up in a grammar book ourselves. It's number, quality, size, age, shape, color nationality, material. So, "amazing", a quality, comes before nationality. The order seems to be the reverse order from Arabic. The most important adjective (American), in both Arabic and English, seems to come closest to the noun (girl).
No. As noun and its adjective are in reverse order (compared to English), any further adjectives added to the phrase would still follow that reverse order.
That is: Amazing girl (in English) = Girl amazing (in Arabic). So: Amazing American girl (En) = Girl American amazing (Ar). To relate better, think of the latter phrase as "a girl who is American and who is amazing."
In general, it's an "adjective order" subject. I don't claim my answer covers the whole subject, but it holds with the phrase in question where the adjectives come back to back with nothing extra such as an "and" in between.