1. Forum
  2. >
  3. Topic: Klingon
  4. >
  5. "luqara' Ho' qeylIS."

"luqara' Ho' qeylIS."

Translation:Kahless admired Lukara.

July 1, 2019

3 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CarterShupe

Is there a reason as to why sometimes the grammer is completely reversed, and sometimes it reads straight through?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/DavidTrimb3

See the tips and notes on the website version of Duolingo for some of the rules of Klingon grammar. Better yet, get yourself a copy of The Klingon Dictionary, which explains most of the grammar.

Basically, Klingon sentence order is different than in English. The basic order is Object-Verb-Subject. That is, the object, the thing to which the action is done, always comes first, and the subject, the thing that does the action, always comes last. This is reversed from the usual English order of Subject-Verb-Object.

But Klingon isn't reversed English. Klingon is much more strict about word positioning than English is. The full verbal clause syntax is:

{time elements} {adverbials and syntactic noun phrases} {objects} {verb} {subject}.

For example,

wa'leS chaq DujDaq HoD legh la'
Maybe the commander will see the captain on the ship tomorrow

wa'leS tomorrow (noun, time element)
chaq perhaps (adverbial)
DujDaq on the ship (Duj ship, -Daq location) (syntactic noun)
HoD captain (object noun)
legh see (verb)
la' commander (subject noun)

Notice how the words follow the syntax order I listed above.

Then you can get more complicated, constructing genitive noun phrases, adding adjectivally acting verbs, using conjunctions, adding subordinate clauses, and so on. They all have their specific orders.

For instance, when one noun possesses another noun, you use the order {possessor} {possessed}: HoD quS captain's chair (the captain possesses the chair). Or when you conjoin nouns with je and or other noun conjunctions, the conjunction comes at the end of the list of nouns: HoD la' Sogh je the captain, the commander, and the lieutenant. Or if you modify a noun with an adjectival verb, the verb follows the noun: HoD val the clever captain (val clever).

You'll need to learn all these various positioning rules.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/jdmcowan

Since Duolingo has hidden the Tips & Notes I want to make sure you know about them and where to find them. If you have not been reading the Tips & Notes, I would like to ask that you review those so we don’t have to repeat too much of the information that we have explained there.

If you are doing the course on iOS or Android, you cannot currently access the Tips & Notes through the app. To access the Tips & Notes, you will have to access the course using a web browser at https://www.duolingo.com/. You can still do it on your mobile device, but you will have to use the web browser instead of the app (or you can do it from a computer). When you click on a Skill, it will expand to reveal a Start button, a key, and a light bulb.

If you click on the light bulb it will reveal the Tips & Notes and give you a detailed explanation of the grammar that is introduced in that Skill. If you have questions after reading the Tips & Notes for any Skills, then please return to the forum to ask your question, explaining what you didn’t understand or what seems contradictory to you.

Learn Klingon in just 5 minutes a day. For free.