I'm sorry I can't explain this well, but I'll try my best. So I guess you would need 'al' to make it 'my French dog'. Here they're saying 'kalbii faransii' as a statement. They're telling you what kind of dog they have. If you answered the question "What kind of dog do you have?" in English, you'd say, "I have a German Shepard" you're stating it, not answering,"My German Sheperd." The words literally translate to kalbii-my dog faransii-(is) French (adj). If you wanted to say 'my French dog' it would be kalbii alfaransii. Kalbii-my dog alfaransii-the French. You're literally saying 'my dog the French' but what it means is 'my French dog'. Sorry if this doesn't make sense or is hard to understand.