Translation:And upon you be peace!
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There is very little flexibility in the response to this phrase, and the "accepted" English feels very stilted. In my opinion, things like "peace be with you" and "goodbye" (or "goodbye to you too") are much more natural.
Actually lslam teaches us a nice way of starting a conversation which loads the further words of the speakers with positivity and respect. So accepting the meaning of it as it is is correct and goodbye is not at all equal to Assalamu Alaikum.
The word goodbye couldn't be used in islam it is "peace be upon you" and " And upon you be peace " is used and it is correct
No, simply because this is the response to that! But you're close. The greeting is "assalaam u-alaikum" while the response is "wa-alaikum assalaam".
nobody is saying it's incorrect, but the more natural versions are what @redearth329 mentions. I also favour "and piece be with you" as it sounds much less sprung from a Shakespeare play.
While giving a literal translation is necessary for learning purposes, I think it is important to know the natural translation as well, which in this case is normally just 'hello (to you too)!' or another usual expression of greeting like 'good morning/afternoon/evening (to you too)!'.