"Bob is happy."
There's no verb "to be" in Arabic. It's an interesting feature of the language. There are a lot of "nominal sentences" that have no verb. Here's a link to a discussion in DL: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/37539230 You can do a search for other discussions on this topic. You will get used to it.
It would be pronounced "Bob", unless the speaker spoke with an accent. The letter و/waaw/u is used because there is no letter for "o" in Arabic. People who know English names would try to pronounce it just like English speakers do. It is a TTS computer system reading the Duolingo sentences here, though, not a person.
I would love to find Arabic friends to follow on here. We could learn a lot from each other! I love middle eastern culture, i have always been extremely interested in Iraq for some reason. Maybe because i know a little more about it than i do other middle eastern countries because instead of relying on what the local media said about it, i used to learn as much about Saddam Hussein, his family and his regime, as well as the proud people of Iraq!