"There is a restaurant."
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This is actually wrong the correct English translation for this sentence should be something like : over there is a restaurant, to express existence in Arabic you should use هنالك instead, هناك is just for distance.
What about يوجد ??? Can we use this for express existence? How it would be different than the others you mentioned?
Ilana145213, (1) Yes, we can! Example: يُوجَدُ مَطعمٌ جديدٌ
(2) The difference is that, when we write the sentence with يُوجَدُ, it becomes جملة فعلية (verbal sentence) which implies التجدد و عدم الثبوت (temporary) whereas هناك مطعم is جملة اسمية (nominal sentence) which express الثبات والإتصال الكامل بالشيء (permanent).
Forgive me for the Classical Arabic terms, until now I've found many difficulties to write English-translated comments, and I don't understand much when people say about Arabic Grammar with English logics, fell free to ask if you still have some question. :))