within exceptionally rare context, yes. It would sound as strange in meaning in Arabic as 'A tall neighbor is from Paris.' sounds in English.
But the more common contexts are:
'The tall neighbor is from Paris' الجار الطويل من باريس
'...a tall neighbor from Paris...' (a phrase that is a subject or object) جار طويل من باريس
For the first part of your questions, Yes we use الـ also for the adjectives that describe the definite nouns or names, as a rule "if the nouns are definite it's obligatory to define the adjectives that describes the"
Your sentence is correct (the two words الجديدة الجميلة) are misspelled (you wrote خ instead of ج)
كلبٌ سريعٌ في الحديقة
A fast dog is in the park
Here notice that there is no equivalent to "is" in the Arabic sentence...
"İF" you want to use something similar in Arabic here in this sentence you may use موجود which means "to be?"
كلب سريع (موجود) في الحديقة
Though it is more common to not use it