Is this an implied "I"? Meaning if no pronoun is stated, then sentence must be about the speaker?
Not sure how they get "my" specifically here.
Right. Should be "The homework is not finished."
"The homework is not finished." is the literal translation. "My" is implied by this being the most likely context, but you're right to say that it is not explicitly stated.
The homework is the subject in this sentence. The "my" is not explicitly stated, but is most likely in the context of the sentence.
Why wouldnʻt you say "ʻAʻole i pau ka haʻawina"?
"Pau" seems to be for consumption - "pau ka 'ai" and "pa'a" for "completed" like a task or project.
"The lesson isn't learned" was actually accepted! 7/27/2020 To me, that's the closest translation of "ʻAʻole i paʻa ka haʻawina."
When is it ok to assume a possessive i. e. kau, ka'u is implied?