"You never listen!"
Translation:Ty nikdy neposloucháš!
could be even worse that that. "Nobody ever listens to anybody." is negated all four times, Nikdo nikoho nikdy neposlouchá.; otherwise, we get a poorly formed sentence.
Use of multiple negatives in the same sentence is found in many, if not most, languages. There’s a Wikipedia article titled “Double negative”, which will tell you more than you could possibly want to know about this. If you’re a real masochist, you could also look up “Jesperson’s Cycle”.
Wondering why it isn't "Ty nikdy posloucháš!" The correct answer seems like a double negative ("You never don't listen!").
Czech always uses negative verb form in negative sentences, often producing double negatives.
It could be also explained by translating "nikdy" = "at any time", "nic" = "anything", "žádný" = "any", etc. We just cannot stick with such translations for questions.