in Italian we say "divertente" (funny) too, to indicate that, for ex in this sentence, the dog does cute things, makes us laugh and smile (in a good way).
I think that "fun" is the correct way to say that in Eng, because I read that "funny" can mean "weird" in some cases, in the sense of "not positive" . for ex "it smells funny" means the smell is weird. so I guess that in En : "fun" is amusing, "funny" is "weird" . natives tell me if I'm wrong ^^
Well, to begin with, "my dog is fun" itself doesn't make much sense to me really. But I'll go with that.
However, in your second sentence (my fun dog) I think it won't be used in that way but rather as (my funny dog).
Now to contrast the two:
- My dog is fun: كلبي ممتع (kalbí mumti3).
- My funny dog: كلبي الممتع (kalbí al-mumti3).
Notice in the second example how the adjective is now defined. This is because in the first example, we have a full sentence; A sentence composed of a subject (my dog) and a predicative (fun) -or funny that is- and what the predicative here does is to "tell" information about the subject. Typically, such sentences in English have a (to be) verb, which is (is) in our case here.
In the second example, we don't have a subject and a predicative; In fact, it is not a sentence at all, but it is merely a noun and an adjective attached to it. Such adjectives are typically called attributive. Notice that here we don't have any (to be) verb and thus this phrase is simply ONE unit: funny dog (plus the possessive article "my"). So, the logic here is: I'm not telling something about "my dog" but rather I'm describing "my dog".
That was in English, but it exists in various languages, for example if you are familiar with German, there is a difference between mein Hund ist lustig (my dog is funny) and mein lustiger Hund (my funny dog). Same thing would be with Turkish, which approximate the Arabic structure just little bit: köpeğim eğlenceli (my dog is funny) and eğlenceli köpeğim (my funny dog).
Now moving to Arabic, the same concept applies concerning attributive adjectives that attach themselves to the noun, and predicative adjectives that are used to tell information about the noun. But, with extra conditions:
- Attributive adjectives (attached adjectives) follow the noun they are attached to in definition, number, gender.
- Predicative adjectives (informative adjectives) follow the noun they are telling information about in number and gender only. Predicative adjectives are not defined with (AL).
You might ask how then (my dog) is considered defined in the examples before, well, in any language (specifically those who have definition articles) do consider possessive articles (your, my, their...etc) as a form of definition, and Arabic is no exception. Thus كلبي is defined indeed, though not with (AL), but rather with the possessive suffix ـي.
Hope this clears it out.
Possessive (my, your, his/her ...etc) in Arabic work by attaching a suffix to the owned word. Here is a list applied to the word كلب (kalb), i.e. "dog":
- My dog: كلبي (kalbí).
- Your(m) dog: كلبك (kalbuk) [-a is added in middle of speech].
- Your(f) dog: كلبكِ (kalbuki).
- His dog: كلبه (kalbuh) [-u is added in middle of speech].
- Her dog: كلبها (kalbuhá).
- Our dog: كلبنا (kalbuná).
- Your(m/pl): كلبكم (kalbukum).
- Your(f/pl): كلبكن (kalbukun).
- Their(m): كلبهم (kalbuhum).
- Their(f): كلبهن (kalbuhun).
For the plurals "your" and "their", when the case is of mixed gender, then the masculine form is used, as it is considered the basic form.
I've skipped some tiny notes and probably this list goes beyond the scope of Duolingo (as Duolingo is mixing dialect with MSA; In dialects we rarely use feminine form for plurals, except in specific situations or specific dialects in Arabia maybe).