Translation:I like running and photography also.
I really didn't understand what you mean by "verbs have moods and aspects" So I did some research and I learned it, thank you
Verbs don't have genitive case but they have another one called جَزْمُ الفِعْلِ
I don't know what it means in English, I am still learning English
Verbs in the Arabic language are divided into past tense, present tense, and imperative tense
Each tense has different cases I will give examples in first person singular present tense ( I mean verbs that come with the pronoun "أَنَا" )
1- in nominative case
أَلْعَبُ كُرَةَ الْقَدَمِ
I play football
*Notice the verb here ends with "u"
2- in accusative case
أُريدُ أَنْ أَلْعَبَ كُرَةَ الْقَدَم
"2uriidu 2an 2al3aba kuratal'Qadami"
I want to play football
*Notice how the first verb ends in "u" because it's in nominative case, but the second verb ends with "a" becouse it's in accusative case ,
whay?!... Because the word "2an" changes the verb to accusative case
3- tha last case
لَمْ أَلْعَبْ كُرَةَ الْقَدَمِ
lam 2al3ab kuratal'Qadami
I didn't play football
*notice here the verb ends with "Sukuun" it means there is no vowel in the end of the verb.
AhmedKun2, I am thrilled by your reply. I'm going to read it 10 times, and get back to you when I've understood it properly. This is new thinking for me, and I thank you from the bottom of my heart. I had been told before that Arabic grammar is different from Western, but I didn't pay attention. I am REALLY happy that you have written this.
You most welcome.
Yes, that is true. I think the Arabic language is very different from the Western languages because they are not from the same language family.
well, if you want to understand what are the word cases and why we need them check this site , it explains every thing
Thank you for the link, AhmedKun. That looks like a lovely site. Alas, I can't study it now, I have other duties, but I very much look forward to it. I see it mentions a free course. Perhaps I could do the Madinaharabic course at the same time as Duolingo? A different approach.
Thanks, AhmedKun2. I'm a bit stupid with computery things. When you say, "just make it an Arabic grammar reference when you don't understand specific grammar here", could you explain exactly what I should do? Because I would like to have it as a reference, but I don't know how.
Maybe you didn't understand me because of my simple English, what I mean is since you don't have time to study the course on the site. There are almost 90 lessons of Arabic grammar there. Well, when you don't understand something like why there is at the end of this verb the u-sound or something like when the word is in the accusative or genitive case , that's what I meant . All you have to do is just search at the website for the grammar or lesson, read it in a simple way, and do not go too deeply into the grammar, Just try to study one grammar per week.
Ancient languages had no concept of verb tenses (time of action) as being built into verb structure (only Modern languages do that); they instead had verbal aspect (kind of action, i.e. perfective, imperfective, or stative), also called Aktionsart. Perfective verbs in Semitic languages, as Ahmed stated, typically bear a -u suffix on the first person conjugations.
Hello again, AhmedKun2. It's five months later, and I know a tiny little bit more. But I don't understand your sentence, "Verbs don't have genitive case but they have another one called جَزْمُ الفِعْلِ". I can't work out what جَزْمُ الفِعْلِ means. Could you help me? Because it's not one of the cases, is it (nominative, accusative, genitive)? I'd be very grateful.
Hello katie, Sorry for the late reply . Now lets explain everything
Declension of the Present Verb:
declension means that the case-ending of the last letter of an Arabic word changes from đammah (ـُـ) (ضَمَّةٌ) to fatħah (ـَـ) (فَتْحَةٌ) or sukūn (ـْـ) (سُكُونٌ) according to the function of the word in the sentence and particles that precede it
naŝb particles أَدَوَاتُ النَّصْبِ such as “an” أنْ or “lan” لَنْ; ĵazm particles أَدَوَاتُ الْجَزْمِ such as “lam” لَمْ; or the prohibitive particle “la” لا.
The present verb has three cases: Rafξ رَفْعٌ (the nominative), Naŝb نَصْبٌ (the accusative), and Ĵazm جَزْمٌ (the genitive), as follows:
1.First case of the present verb is the Rafξ رَفْعٌ. The present verb is originally in the Rafξ case. Consider the following example of a question using “ayna” (أَيْنَ) and the answer to it:
إِلَى أَيْنَ سَتَذْهَبُ يَا بُنَيَّ؟
Ilā ayna satadhhab-u yā bunayya?
Where do you go, my son?
سَأَذْهَبُ لِزِيارَةِ أَصْدِقَائِي
Sa'adhahab-u liziyārati aŝdiqā'ī
I will go to visit my friends
2.The second case of the present verb is the naŝb نَصْبٌ, where the case-ending of the last letter changes from Đammah ضَمّةٍ to Fatħah فَتْحَةٍ when it is preceded by certain particles,Consider the following example of an yes/no question using “hal” (هَلْ) and the answer to it:
هَلْ سَتَسْكُنُ فِي مِصْرَ؟
Hal sataskun-u fī miŝra?
Will you live in Egypt?
لا، لَنْ أَسْكُنَ فِي مِصْرَ وَلَكِنْ أُرِيدُ أَنْ أَزُورَها فَقَطْ.
Lā, lan askun-a fī miŝr wa lākin urīdu an azūr-a-ha faqaŧ
No, I will not live in Egypt but I want to visit it
3.The third case of the present verb declension is the Ĵazm جَزْمٌ where the case-ending of the last letter changes from the Đammah to Sukūn. Consider the following examples of present verbs preceded by Ĵazm particles “lā” and “lam”:
لَمْ يَشْرَبِ الطَّالِبُ اللَّبَنَ
Lam yashrabi ŧ-ŧâlibu al-labana
The student has not drunk milk
لا تَسْهَرْ كَثِيرًا فَإنَّ السَّهَرَ يُتْعِبُ الْجِسْمَ.
La tas-har kathīran fa'inna as-sahara yutξibu al-ĵisma
Do not stay up long, lest your body should be exhausted
So, we can say that a present verb has three cases: Rafξ (يَشْرَبُ), Naŝb (لَنْ يَشْرَبَ) and Ĵazm (لَمْ يَشْرَبْ).
Wow, thank you. This is another one that I'm going to copy and study repeatedly. Unfortunately, today the Duolingo text on my screen does not respond to blocking and copying. I hope this will pass. But there's one question (probably superficial and stupid) that comes to my mind - I was puzzled that the third case was sukun - I thought the third case was genitive, and indicated by a kasra. Or is that only for nouns?
BrianTice: so what do you call ancient languages? At what point do they become modern? What about Greek of 5th century BC, commonly known as ancient Greek? As far as I remember, they had the concept of tense. What about Arabic? How do you determine the ancient from the modern?
It's in the chapter called PHRASES. I'm such a nerd that I copy the chapters into my computer. Here's a copy of the relevant passage (ah, the table format didn't come through here, but it doesn't really matter): -an You already know that a tiny slash above a letter makes the sound a. But what if you see two tiny slashes at the end of a word? Well, that symbol makes a different sound: an. Usually, -an is written above ا, making it look like this: اً. (The ا is silent!) Arabic word With English letters Meaning شُكْراً shukran thank you صَباحاً SabaaHan in the morning مَساءً masaa2an in the evening Some people prefer to write -an first and then to add the silent alif, like this: شُكْرًا (instead of شُكْراً). Either way, the word is pronounced the same way: shukran!