Easier, yes. Proper? No.
The thing is, there is no dialect of Arabic to be considered as an official "thing" nor it has a proper orthography system. Moreover, dialects vary, so when you say "Arabic course" the door is open for many many dialects and variations. For example, Morocco as far as I know has 3 dialects of Arabic (not counting Amazight), and probably 4 or more in Egypt. The safest bet is, to stick to the standard Arabic.
Yet, another example from your example: Minwayn is probably Lebanese or Syrian (Levant in general). In other parts it is: Minwain, Mnain, Imnain, Mineen, Minain, Minween. And notice that the expression is made by 2 words in fact: مِن (min: from), وين (w??n: where). I put "??" because these vowels here as you saw earlier do change drastically from one dialect to another.
that's fair. I think that's one of the hardest aspects of learning Arabic, while people will sort of understand you with using MSA they all reply that's not how we say it lol, so it feels at first to be useless info. im only a year in so obviously I feel barely a student, but its intriguing at the variations of dialect. in my searches ive been told to avoid Moroccan for a long while as its so drastically different from the rest so its interesting to hear someone who knows a little more about it. Thx for the input.
Those who say "that's not how we say it" are probably those who do not have a "feel" for Arabic. Many people find it weird to speak proper Arabic even though at, let's say, some educated class or level, people would mix proper Arabic with the regular speech because it has that "ring" to it. I come from a generation when cartoons were dubbed in standard Arabic and we learned the bulk of our Arabic from these cartoons, and also TV series which were done in standard Arabic - all that contributed to the appreciation and to the feel of the language, as a source of strength and eloquence to be used when strength is to be added to the speech. Nowadays, I've seen many cartoons that were dubbed in local dialects (majorly Egyptians) and it just doesn't ring with me. If I have the power, I would ban such cartoons (specially Disney's) with such "silly" dub. Call me a dictator, but culture comes first to me.
As for Moroccan; Even here, people are scared to take a look at it in fact. I think this is something mental really. Like we have here in the East, our dialects are mixed with Persian, Turkish, Indian and finally English words, because of all the history we passed through, likewise it is the case with Moroccan dialect (darija) which already co-existed with Amazight since the early days of Islam there. Later on, this dialect to be mixed with French and Spanish. Personally, when I was active on Instagram, I've tried to listen carefully (and read) the Moroccan dialect or Darija, and I realized that this dialect is like ours, and the core is pure Arabic, but it's just the speed they speak with and the "stress" they apply to syllables that is different. With some focus, I believe one with Arabic background from the East and adapt to it quickly. Probably the confusing part is that the gender of verbs and nouns are a bit mixed up and not as clear as it is for Arabic speakers in the East (I think they use the feminine ending for verbs sometimes even when speaking to males, something unusual for us in the East).
Looking at it with my Western European eyes (which I admit isn't always the best way to look at things), it feels that the decision to call all these dialects 'dialects', and not separate languages, is more of a political decision than a linguistic one. If you compare the distance between Moroccan and Syrian Arabic with the distance between Norwegian and Danish, or between Czech and Slovak, I feel there is a case to be made to call these Arabic 'dialects' real languages. (The problem might then be to decide where to put the boundaries: is Egyptian different enough from Lybian to call the two distinct languages?) But I hardly know Arabic, so I might be babbling... :-)
Arabic is not to be compared to European languages in terms of history and reference. Dialects did exist before Islam in Arabia between various tribes and areas in Arabia. However, when Quran was revealed, in the Arabic spoken in Makkah, this point in time and this dialect in time is to be considered the reference point for standard/classical Arabic. Arabic for us is one, but it is called in various names in the West specially by orientalists for studying purposes, like Classical, Modern, and so on. In terms of modern Arabic, it is barely the orthography that had been changed and standardized, away from the orthography of Quran which did not change since a thousand years or more.
As for the modern day dialects, it might be for a political reason that we insist on calling them dialects, yet this is not far from the actual bonding, since the majority of these countries inhabited by muslims and they adapt indeed the Arabic language for formal issues and education. The mutual understanding between dialects does not need special education or learning to be achieved. It just needs exposure. The basic backbone for the dialect in Morocco for example, is Arabic, amalgamated with French, Spanish and of course Amazight influences. In the East, the same thing happened but with influences from Persian, Turkish, English and even Indian. Yet, the backbone is the Arabic vocabulary. I myself was able to understand much Moroccan even though it is not my dialect, even though many people here see it as weird, yet I did understand much of it by reading posts on Instagram and by time by listening. It's simply a matter of exposure to the dialect to get the ears accustomed to the speed of the dialect and its vocabulary. Then, there is always our reference, the standard Arabic, which we can refer to in case of any problem in understanding. Moroccan music for example is also easy to comprehend compared to regular speech because it goes with the music and much slower. Yet, the overall wording is simply Arabic. In some instances, some purely Arabic words are used in the Maghrib region and which had dropped out of use in the East (or sometimes the meaning had changed in the East). So, it's not all political when we say these are dialects emerging from one tongue, but it is a fact.
If people call the language they speak as Arabic, then it is Arabic. This criterion is the political and cultural one. On the other hand, if you understand what's said in a foreign language after being exposed to it for a few weeks than it is a dialect of the language you are speaking, this criterion is the linguistic one. Nowadays, linguistics require both criteria to be met in order to claim the other one as a seperate language or dialect.
(yá) is a vocative article. There are other articles, but this is the most common one. You put that before the name of the person (or thing) you are calling. You can compare this to the typical article "O" in classical English or "A" in Irish (if you are familiar with Gaeilge).