https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SASSYandsisters.

Arabic Word of the Day 76# [Journey in Arabia 18# - Sudan Facts!]

Hellooo! Today we’re going to jump from Somalia to Sudan, I hope you enjoy these facts and sorry for the inconsistence in posting these ;p

1# Sudan is an Arab republic in the Nile Valley of North Africa, bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west and Libya to the northwest.

2# It is the third largest country in Africa. The Nile River divides the country into eastern and western halves.

3# Rich mineral resources are available in Sudan including asbestos, chromite, cobalt, copper, gold, granite, gypsum, iron, kaolin, lead, manganese, mica, natural gas, nickel, petroleum, silver, tin, uranium and zinc.

4# The nation’s wildlife is threatened by hunting. As of 2001, twenty-one mammal species and nine bird species are endangered, as well as two species of plants. Endangered species include: the Wald Rapp, Northern White Rhinoceros, Tora Hartebeest, Slender-horned Gazelle, and Hawksbill Turtle. The Sahara Oryx has become extinct in the wild.

5# In 2010, Sudan was considered the 17th-fastest-growing economy in the world and the rapid development of the country largely from oil profits even when facing international sanctions was noted by The New York Times in a 2006 article.

6# El-obeid is the capital city of the Kordofan region in Western Sudan, and was once the Mahdi’s capital and political centre. Situated in the middle of a vast stretch of barren desert, it has a population of 200,000 people and is an important centre for the production of Arabic gum. This substance is used in the manufacture of food thickening, ink and medicinal products, and is obtained from acacia trees.

7# Port Sudan was founded by the British in 1909 as the terminus of a rail linking the Red Sea to the River Nile. It served as a new modern port to replace Sawakin. The railroad was used to transport the nation’s cotton and sesame seed, as well as sorghum, from the agriculturally rich areas of the Nile valley to export markets. Port Sudan is known among tourists for its excellent scuba-diving and beaches.

8# Suakin island is situated 58km south of Port Sudan and was once a major trading centre, particularly in the 19th century, during the boom years of slavery. As far back as the 10th century BC, Suakin was used by Pharaoh Rameses III as a trading port, but declined in importance after the close of the 19th century AD, and in 1905 was superseded in importance by Port Sudan.

9# Kassala is situated in Eastern Sudan and has a population of 150,000. The city is built on the Gash River and is the power centre of one of the Sudan’s traditional families — the Khatmiya Brotherhood, which opposed the Mahdi family in the last century. On the outskirts of the city live the Rashaida tribe, mostly inhabiting goatskin tents. They are a nomadic people who breed camels and goats, and are closely related to the Saudi Arabian Bedouin, having migrated from the Arabian Peninsula about 150 years ago. It is the mysteriously-veiled Rashaida women who make a great deal of the silver jewellery sold in the Kassala souq.

10# Located at the conjunction of the Atbara tributary, flowing down from Ethiopia, and the River Nile, Atbara is on two main railway routes: from Atbara to Port Sudan, and from Khartoum to Wadi Halfa. The city has a population of 75,000 people. In 1898 it was the site of a battle between the British and the Mahdists, when 2,000 of the latter were wiped out by Kitchener. After the battle, British officials settled here, building colonial-style houses, which are now used as government offices.

11# Jebel Marra Mountains -This western-Sudanese mountain range is dominated by the second-highest mountain in the Sudan, known as Jebel Marra. This is an extinct volcano which rises to a height of 3071 metres. The combination of hills, rivers, and beautiful valleys surrounding the mountain is a good spot to experience [if you’re not scared of heights like me ;p]

12# As well as Manute Bol, who in his time was the tallest basketball player to appear in the NBA, two other Sudanese have made appearances, however briefly. They were Deng Gai (Philadelphia 76ers) and Luol Deng (Chicago Bulls and Great Britain national team).

13# There are a large number of old Egyptian ruins and pyramids in Sudan, as the area once formed part of the Egyptian realm.

14# Sudan used to be the largest country in Africa (area wise), before the country split in two last year (North Sudan and South Sudan).

15# Sudan had one of the first and most active women’s movements in the African and Arab world during the 1960s–70s. In addition, Sudanese women are also pioneers in science, politics and activism. Sudan boasts the first female parliamentarian in Africa and the Middle East (1965), the first female Minister of Health (1974); and the Middle East’s first female judge, cinematographer, football referee, army and police officers

16# Sudan is the first Muslim and Arab country to appoint a female as a judge. This took place in the 1960s. There are at least 67 judges in the Sudanese judiciary today, which is more than any other Arab or Muslim country in the world.

17# About 400 BC, the ox-driven water wheel was introduced to the Sudan. It still plays a vital role in the country’s economy.

18# According to Sudanese law, the minimum age for a male to get married is 18 and above, while a female must be 16 years old or above.

19# In Sudan, there is a marriage tradition called ghost marriage. A ghost marriage is the practice by which people marry for a deceased brother to bring up an heir for him. In other words, a deceased groom is replaced by his brother. The brother serves as a stand in to the bride, and any resulting children are considered children of the deceased spouse. It’s a predominant practice in the Nilotic tradition. The Nuer and Dinka (people of South Sudan) particularly still socially adopt the marriage as a means of extending the family number. Ghost marriages have also occurred in France and China.

20# Before a wedding, it’s a tradition for a bride to sit in a smoke bath of burning perfumed acacia wood called Dukhan, twice a day for 40 days (shorter or longer). During that period, she wouldn’t wash. Her body would be covered with aromatic oils as well until a thick layer forms on her skin. On day 40, the thick ❤❤❤❤❤ layer would be peeled off revealing glowing skin underneath.

21# What is now northern Sudan was in ancient times the kingdom of Nubia, which came under Egyptian rule after 2600 B.C. An Egyptian and Nubian civilization called Kush flourished until A.D. 350. Missionaries converted the region to Christianity in the 6th century, but an influx of Muslim Arabs, who had already conquered Egypt, eventually controlled the area and replaced Christianity with Islam.

22# During the 1500s a people called the Funj conquered much of Sudan, and several other black African groups settled in the south, including the Dinka, Shilluk, Nuer, and Azande. Egyptians again conquered Sudan in 1874, and after Britain occupied Egypt in 1882, it took over Sudan in 1898, ruling the country in conjunction with Egypt. It was known as the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan between 1898 and 1955.

23# The 20th century saw the growth of Sudanese nationalism, and in 1953 Egypt and Britain granted Sudan self-government. Independence was proclaimed on Jan. 1, 1956. Since independence, Sudan has been ruled by a series of unstable parliamentary governments and military regimes. Under Maj. Gen. Gaafar Mohamed Nimeiri,

24# The day usually begins with a cup of tea. Breakfast is eaten in the mid- to late morning, generally consisting of beans, salad, liver, and bread. Millet is the staple food, and is prepared as a “porridge” [It’s more like dough rather than porridge but ok] called asida [3asida] or a flat bread are prepared in stews or salads.

25# Ful [said like "You Fool!" :3], a dish of broad beans cooked in oil, is common, as are cassavas and sweet potatoes. Nomads in the north rely on dairy products and meat from camels. In general, meat is expensive and not often consumed. Sheep are killed for feasts or to honour a special guest. The intestines, lungs, and liver of the animal are prepared with chili pepper in a special dish called marara.

26# Greetings and leave-takings are interactions with religious overtones.

27# The indigenous religion is Animist, ascribing spirits to natural objects such as trees, rivers, and rocks. Often an individual clan will have its own totem, which embodies the clan’s first ancestor. The spirits of ancestors are worshiped and are believed to exercise an influence in everyday life. There are multiple gods who serve different purposes. Specific beliefs and practices vary widely from tribe to tribe and from region to region. Certain cattle-herding tribes in the south place great symbolic and spiritual value on cows, which sometimes are sacrificed in religious rituals.

28# The indigenous Sudanese literary tradition is oral rather than written and includes a variety of stories, myths, and proverbs. The written tradition is based in the Arab north. Sudanese writers of this tradition are known throughout the Arab world. The country’s most popular writer, Tayeb Salih, is author of two novels, The Wedding of Zein and Season of Migration to the North, which have been translated into English. Contemporary Sudanese poetry blends African and Arab influences. The form’s best-known practitioner is Muhammad al-Madhi al-Majdhub.

29# Music and dance are central to Sudanese culture and serve many purposes, both recreational and religious. In the north, music reveals strong Arabic influence, and often involves dramatic recitations of verses from the Qur’an. In the south, the indigenous music relies heavily on drums and complex rhythms.

30# One ritual in which music plays a large part is the zar, a ceremony intended to cure a woman of possession by spirits; it is a uniquely female ritual that can last up to seven days. A group of women play drums and rattles, to which the possessed woman dances, using a prop as an object associated with her particular spirit.

31# The traditional Sudanese clothes are very unique and beautiful. Women wear traditional clothes called Toob which is a long kind of clothes and there are many different colours to it. Toob is made of different materials.

I hope you’ve learnt some facts on our friends in Sudan, and cya whenever I next post [I’m not going to make promises XD In fact, I should change it to Arabic Post of Every Now and Then]

July 17, 2019

36 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/TheLord2k1

Sassyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy
I got 98.8% for my exams and im gonna study medicine in universityyyyy

July 17, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SASSYandsisters.

:D CONGRATULATIONS!!!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/TheLord2k1

thank you sassyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SASSYandsisters.

Urrm don't even ask me why soooooooty has love hearts in front of it... Is it a bad word? :0


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AndresGarner

Did you just say SoOoty (the s word LOL)?! Very naughty mushroom. LOL


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RuwaydaAtH

❤❤❤❤❤

What's happening with Duolingo?! All I did was write ❤❤❤❤❤!

Oh!

❤❤❤❤❤ hehe XD

Wait hold up!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AndresGarner

(Gasps...) Not the “s-word” again...

Very disappointed...I didn’t think you guys cursed like this LOL


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RuwaydaAtH

❤❤❤❤❤.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SASSYandsisters.

NO! You can eat as many bananas as you wish... [not like I was stopping you anyways] ... No! Chicken and Mushrooms is a NOOOO


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AndresGarner

Me and Ruwayda could always change our banana eating habits to mushrooms if you’d like? XD


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RuwaydaAtH

Yeah. That could mean Chicken and Mushroom flavour noodles for the rest of my life. XD


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SASSYandsisters.

:O I said the S-word! Miss is gonna make me move my name and go to partner class hehe! ...

[since you're American you might not get what I mean lol but partner class is like the typical British Primary school thing where basically you get kicked out of the lesson for doing "a really bad thing" something like saying "you... IDIOT", then you go to another classroom and sit there for 15mins missing lesson time hmm hmm I mean reflecting on the bad thing you did... and staying there for extra long cus you're so deep in reflecting on the horrid thing you just committed XD]


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AndresGarner

So...I am guessing some students like partner class? LOL


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SASSYandsisters.

I loved it anyways ;p I'm sure we all went there on purpose except for the wimpy cry babies who thought getting a warning was the end of the world XD


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AndresGarner

Wow! Sudan is a very interesting place. They have some very unique customs.

I actually slightly know a person from Sudan.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SASSYandsisters.

What do you mean slightly know? XD This isn't Quantum Physics! It's you know, or don't ;p I know a few people from Sudan too :D But I don't think they travel around the world a lot... I guess there country must be perfect :) ...might jump out from the plane to Sudan instead :p


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AndresGarner

I kinda know...I only met this person 2 times (just the same 2-5 minute conversation) so I slightly know him... right?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RuwaydaAtH

Nice! Wanna visit some day. Might even be able to meet my uncle. XD


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SASSYandsisters.

Does your uncle live there? :o


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RuwaydaAtH

Yeah. Where else?????????????????????????


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SASSYandsisters.

Lol now I realised my Q is so stupid XD ... Did I tell you my English mock results? :D I got a grade 7! XDDDDDDD So happy! I thought I was gonna get grade 2! I'm a genius mushroom :333


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RuwaydaAtH

U A ❤❤❤❤❤ GENIUS.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SASSYandsisters.

;p I am actually proud. I also got a grade 8 for Geography and a 7 in Maths... Computer Science totally failed me with a fudging 4!! [well that was the highest in the class so I'm not alone]


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RuwaydaAtH

I'll do it. I'll go drop by Tesco and buy 2 of them[they are SO CHEAP 2 pounds/ quid whatever you call it]. MWAHAHAHA JK XD


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SASSYandsisters.

Whenever I walk past those I dread them XD No! i'll steal all your money! Mwahaaha ...if you have any ;p


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RuwaydaAtH

Nah I spent my last 25p on jam donuts that I ended up throwing away.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SASSYandsisters.

Sassy never had pocket money. In fact, the only time Sassy ever got money was on Eid. After all, giving pocket money to your children isn't an Arab thing.

But allowing your child to actually keep that little money they earned wasn't an Arab thing either. Every time Sassy saved a few quid, they'd go into the pockets of the taxi driver for the £20 fair to Tesco.

And if your child had survived the taxi fair with a few pounds to spare, allowing them to actually buy something was an irresponsible act. "Sassy really is too silly to spend her 50p on something sensible".

So, in fact, what was the point in giving Sassy money anyways you may ask? Well luckily Sassy did ask!

"Keep the money, in case we might need it for our next takeaway delivery"

Or in other words...

"You're our piggy bank! We might need that money for that disgusting undercooked, underspiced takeaway chicken"

So after having realised this one-way ticket to eating dutty food, Sassy gave away her life-saving to charity.

THE END.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RuwaydaAtH

XDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD

I get money when I ask for it but only up to 5 pounds and then I go to the corner shop and spend all of it on these beautiful sweets:

[not sweet DRINK]

XDDDDDDDDD


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SASSYandsisters.

Well if I ever ask for money to buy sweets they'd remind me of the "£3500 spent on getting you braces" giving a "therefore if you rot your teeth I'm gonna kill you" stare... So, no chance.

And my Dad is so extra and so therefore I've never tried an energy drink my whole entire life. He's there, trying to be healthy, but not realising how much fat is in that Libyan cuisine.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Ccf-Uk_2018

Nice! Thank you for doing this! :-)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/PeterChast1

"19# In Sudan, there is a marriage tradition called ghost marriage..." This obligation, which anthropologists call "levirate marriage," exists in many societies, including the ancient Hebrews. Genesis 38 refers to this in the story of Onan, who practiced early withdrawal to avoid giving his deceased brother a child.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SASSYandsisters.

Oh I didn't know that :) Thanks for sharing! ;D

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