Yeah I think so. Could be the speakers (to me it sounds ok). Sometimes though because we are not used to the sound of something, our brain tends to associate this sound to whatever is known in our background language (e.g. an Arab speaker, unless being focused, won't find it easy to differentiate between B and P).
Not really. In the Arabic language-sense, aspiration is just another (H) sound attached to another consonant; At least this is how we would write it.
Anyway, to approximate the sound: Try to position your tongue to say the English (T); The tip of the tongue now is behind the upper teeth ridge. Now, just pull the tip little bit back, not much, and eventually you would have to curve the middle of the tongue downward. Now, say T while your tongue is in this new position. This move will cause the chamber of the mouth to be larger (and I think in phonetics this kind of sound is called Velar). So, it's not aspiration as much as it is velarization of the sound by making the mouth chamber bigger than usual to say the same phoneme.
If this doesn't help, I'm sure there are a lot of videos on Youtube for real speakers (and I guess this is better than description).
For those interested in Semitic cognates (vocab building): This word جار (jaar) is ancient and relates to western Aramaic mgyr, "neighbor" found in Jewish and Christian Palestinian Aramaic and Samaritan Aramaic, and Targumic. Eastern Aramaic prefers šbb from what I can tell (and very different is Hebrew שָׁכֵן). See Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon Project (CAL) online: šbb, šybbˀ and mgyr.
Nominal sentences in Arabic (i.e. sentences starting with a noun) cannot start with an indefinite subject, like "a neighbor". In this case, it must be THE neighbor is tall الجار طويل.
From this, we conclude that the phrase above جار طويل is not a full sentence (which in English would and should have the verb "to be" involved) but it is a short phrase composed of a noun (جار) and its adjective which describes it (also known as attributive adjective) which is (طويل). So, converting all this information into English we should put a noun+attributive adjective: a tall neighbor, and NOT "a neighbor is tall" - because as I've mentioned, such sentence in Arabic cannot start with an indefinite noun. Exceptions to this rule are rare and far in literature, away from the simple standard Arabic.
Yes. Plurals or singulars do not affect the general structure.
- Women are great: النساء عظيمات (an-nisá'u 3aD'ímát).
- Great women: نساء عظيمات (nisá'un 3aD'ímát).
- THE great women: النساء العظيمات (an-nisáú-l-3aD'ímát).
- Syrians are tall: السوريون طوال (as-súriyyún Tiwál).
- Tall Syrians: سوريون طوال (súriyyúna Tiwál).
- THE tall Syrians: السوريون الطوال (as-súriyyúna aT-Tiwál).
The adjective طوال (Tiwál) is the masculine plural of طويل(Tawíl).
Shukran, that is great.
So, in a way, in any generalization in Arabic there is a silent "all": "syrians are tall" == "(all) the syrians are tall". Interesting. Maybe this is the reason there is no nominating structure for indefinite singular ("a syrian is tall"), because such statement is located in a limbo between specifying ("this syrian is tall") and generalizing ("syrians are tall") - which both get the "al" prefix in Arabic.
Well, there is indeed a word for (all) which is كُل (kul) and you can use it as a generalizing factor: كُلُّ السوريين طِوال (kullu-l-súriyyín Tiwál). Here, we say سوريين instead of سوريون because it fell under the Genitive effect of كل so its ending must change (it's like saying all of the Syrians. (Kul) can be used as well for (every) when it is added to a singular: كلُّ سوريٍّ طويل which depending on the context can be translated as either (every Syrian IS tall) or (every tall Syrian). Nominal sentences in Arabic do not start usually with indefinite noun except in very rare and under strict rules, and maybe this is one of them or maybe the addition of (kul) does make the Genitive compound a form of definition. But as I said, the meaning of كل سوري طويل would need a context to be translated properly to either version.