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It is actually not true in many (probably most) cases. If you take for example "Der Stuhl zerbricht" --> "The chair breaks" and replace the chair with a pronoun you get: "Er zerbricht" --> "He breaks" instead of "It breaks" Which pronoun is used to replace a noun depends on the gender of the noun and not if it is an inanimate thing. Therefore: masculin (der) --> er, feminin (die) --> sie neuter (das) --> es
It is the second person singular form. Verbs take an "-st" ending here like "spielen" (to play) would be "spielst" in du form (that is, "du spielst", "you play"), some verbs change a bit differently like "essen" becomes "isst" in du form but that's more of a pattern of certain verbs themselves that you'll learn.
Er is he, ihr is you (plural) in the nominative case. Also, sie (she) becomes ihr (her) in the dative and genitive cases, and sie (they) and Sie (you, formal) become ihr (their) and Ihr (your, formal) in the genitive (posessive) case. Ex:
Er spricht gut Englisch. = He speaks English well.
Was habt ihr da? = What do you (plural) have there.
Ich wohne bei ihr. = I live with her.
Es kam aus ihr Haus. = It came from her house.
Jürg und Julia wohnen hier. Es ist ihr Haus. = Jürg and Julia live here. It is their house.
Ist das Ihr Mantel? = Is that your (formal) coat?
English and German are both West Germanic languages, and you're bound to see several similarities. The English adjective "young" is a cognate to the German adjective "jung", and both languages have nominalised forms (the noun in English is "young", and in German "Junge" - however they have different meanings).
It's because any word that ends in -chen or -lein is neuter regardless of whatever original gender it had (same for -ling, except that becomes masculine) - these endings form the diminutive (basically a smaller or cuter version) of whatever word they are appended to. Here it is from the feminine word "Magd", which means "maid", but this word (referring specifically to "Magd" here) is generally associated with the older times and contexts these days (like medieval). "Fräulein" is another example of a diminutive that alters the grammatical gender to be incongruent with real gender.
Are you aware that the "r" in "er" is supposed to be pronounced as a vowel?
I'm sorry if I come across as brash, but I have never ever heard this. Not when I took German in college or from my grandmother whose first language was German. The 'r' in "er" was always present, if a bit soft. It never took vowel form. Has something changed in the way German is taught recently - I know languages are subject to change and I'm wondering if that's it.
When a masculine noun is in the accusative case. The accusative case is very simple, it is the direct object of a sentence, or the thing that DIRECTLY receives the action of a verb. An example is "Ich esse einen Apfel" (der Apfel is a masculine word, and it is directly receiving the action of a verb, which is "esse", which means to eat, and "ich" is the subject, which means "I", and the subject is the one that is doing the verb).
For translating purposes it is not correct. The right list would look like that:
boy = Junge
girl = Mädchen
child = Kind
child means basically "young human". It does not give you any information about the gender of said human. boy and girl on the other hand do. Therefore, if you translate boy to Kind you lose information (unnecessarily) and translating Kind to boy will turn out wrong in about 50% of cases (because you assign a gender you don't know). It is really exactly the same as in English (and at least French), so I don't really see the difficulty here.
The statement: "All boys are children, but not all children are boys." was meant to show that boy and child are not equivalent.