good question. This is where grammar and casings come into effect.
Let's say: 1:
Sarah is a French translator. (i.e., she is from France)
سارة مترجمةٌ فرنسيةٌ. Saarah mutarjimatun faransiyyah.
2: Sarah is a French translator. (i.e., she translates from French)
سارة مترجمةُ فرنسيةٍ.
Sarah mutarjimatu firinsiyyah.
In example 2 the grammar is different - it becomes a possessor form. Bit of complicated grammar in this stage but: there would be no ambiguity if the grammar is followed. Infact, the ambiguity is in English not so Arabic.
عَلي is a male name in Arabic. And it's not a short form of another name like in some other languages. It means high, noble or exalted. Most famous Ali was probably https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ali Ali ibn abi talib. There also many derived names from "Ali" most famous is probably Mohamed or (Muhamed) Ali https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_Ali