Translation:I know all the numbers from 0 to 10 in Arabic.
Actually, I'm not sure why, but saying 'all of' instead of just 'all the' sounds...wrong? in English. It's not that the translation has a different meaning, but that's just the way you'd say it in English. I think it's cause here you're stating a specific amount, " I know all the numbers from 0-10" makes more sense. Using 'of' is maybe for an indefinite amount of something (which you can't apply to numbers).
Absolutely right, Melan_18. Similarly, you'd say "I know all the letters of the alphabet". I first thought it was to do with abstract entities, but it's not. You'd also say, "I know all the members of her family." "What, all of them?" "Yes, all of them". So it seems that adding "of" makes it more emphatic. And Phuvtuo is (unusually) wrong. Unless what s/he says is true in America.