So aguentar is "to take" as in "to receive". Not "to take" as in "to obtain". Understandable, but what then would the translation be for, "They don't take anymore" ? (Looking to know the difference between "can't" and "don't")
Think about the literal meaning of "aguentar": to have enough strength to carry, to lift, or to keep a weight lifted.
So, it's easy to see two forms of "take" in this case.
1 - Can't take/stand it any longer.
2 - Can't take any additional weight or task.
In both cases, they are pushed to their limits.
If you would translate "they don't take anymore" (then it's not about being able to do something, but just not doing it), it would be: "eles não pegam mais" or "eles não aceitam mais".
I think it's closer to an expression, not a word by word translation. "I just can't take it" = "eu simplesmente não posso/consigo suportar (isso)" / "i can't stand waiting in meetings" = "não suporto/aguento esperar em reuniões"
If you are looking for an English word, think of "withstand" or "bear". You are talking about the ability to bear a burden, It is usually about putting up with something negative: pain, abuse, exploitation, infidelity, etc. You could say "I can't take anymore laughter" but most of the time what you complain about is negative.
But if you typed "eles não aguentam mais isso" shoud be also accepted...
"They can take no more" is not accepted? I would have thought that it is a valid translation.
"They can take it no more"