Since there's no actual context behind the given sentence, it can be thought of as a general statement about "nature" or as a response as Alex789222 said. So both "I like nature" and "I like the nature" should be accepted as answers. Both are valid sentences in English. If you want another example, "how do you like parks here?" "I like the nature."
Yep. Example: The human nature > الطبيعة البشرية (aT-Tabee3atu-L-bašariyyah). Another example (related): The nature of humans: طبيعة البشر (Tabee3atu-L-bašar).
Notice that in the first example, we have a noun+adjective compound, and in the second example it is noun+noun (genitive) compound.