I Wonder if طقس is a borrowing from Ancient Greek "Taxis", meaning "order, Disposition". The ط and ق representing Greek "t" and "k" seem to confirm this, because it is normal in arabic to represent plosive consonants of another language with arabic emphatics (as in إيطاليا for "Italy").
Interesting. It could be.
In fact, there is another word for the weather in Arabic but it is not widely used (maybe only in literature?) and that is النوء (An-naw') and from which the word for Meteorology is derived علم الأنواء
Away from this, the word طقس has also another usage which actually might confirm your theory. It is also used for "Ritual" and commonly in the plural form for Rituals طقوس.
Then I guess we made a discovery here :)
In fact, Greek has more influence on Arabic even before Islam, more than Latin did, because of the contact between (Eastern) Romans and Arabia back then and for centuries to come after.
One of the words mentioned in Quran which are said to be of Greek origin as well is the word سُنْدُس Sundus, meaning silk, or some type of silk. Not sure about it though, but the sound of "sundus" sounds parallel to how a Greek word would sound.
Yes, Arabs did adapt some words from Persians, like Ibreeq إبريق and maybe Istabraq إستبرق and in a later Islamic period words like Muhandis مهندس - However, to what I know, Sundus was adapted from Greek. Also, Sundus could be a special type of silk, since silk is originally called حرير in Arabic. There is قسطاس (qisTás) which is also said to be of Greek origin.
On the same line, there are some words that got into Arabic or some dialects of Arabic in ancient times, from Abyssinian (be it Ge'ez or a related language in Abyssinia at the time), like Qaswarah قسورة which means "lion".
TJ_Q8, سندس is in Quran : Al Kahf Verse 31. Allaah said:
وَيَلْبَسُونَ ثِيَاباً خُضْراً مِنْ سُنْدُسٍ وَإِسْتَبْرَقٍ
It's interesting as the Verse mentions استبرق which you say the word was from Persian.
Then, about سندس, Wiktionary says, "From Parthian or Middle Persian" and "From an Anatolian source, compare Ancient Greek. Kindly check this link : https://en.m.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D8%B3%D9%86%D8%AF%D8%B3
So, it says something. I guess سندس is preferable from Persian?, because استبرق (the next word in the Verse) is Persian. Persian and Persian are close while Persian and Greek are far.
By the way, "Kuswara" is a male name in Indonesia. I don't know where the word comes from. Do you know about this? But, if he's Persian, he becomes a lion :))
If you mean the sound of (-un) at the end of the first word, then this is called Tanwin actually. Tanwin (or Nunation) is a type of vowel which did exist even in extinct Semitic languages, like Akkadian. Anyway, I don't know why Duolingo is not putting the marker for this vowel like the rest. Tanwin can come in various flavors: -an, -in, and -un; It depends on the status of the noun in the sentence (nominative, accusative... etc). You can think of it for now as it is a marker for the indefinite nouns, working like the English a/an article.
Notice that it has other uses in the language but this is a way to start with it. When a noun is not defined with AL at the beginning, then Tanwin comes to its end. The two cannot co-exist in a single word.
Most welcome. Just to add, Tanwin(s) should be looking like this (and Duolingo is not showing them on/under the last letters of the words):
Notice that (-an) Tanwin is the only one that requires adding Alif as well (long story short, speech requirements), except in few instances where it cannot be added, e.g. if the word ends with Ta Marbúta ة.
Also, (-un) can be written sometimes (I guess not so common now) like:
In other words, like a double Dhammah on the letter (just like the other Tanwins).
(a) cold weather: طقسٌ بارد (Taqsun bárid).
The cold weather: الطقسُ البارد (al-Taqsu al-bárid).
The weather is cold: الطقس بارد (al-Taqsu bárid).
(a) weather is cold is not possible in Arabic. Nominal sentences (sentences starting with a noun) in Arabic must start with defined noun (i.e. with AL).