Actually this is a mistake from the text-to-speech machine they are using (it's no good at all).
Samiah is a name and it ends with T-Marbuta (ـة) ... this letter has a long phonetic story changing from H to T - anyway it should be kept as H here because Samiah is a proper name and not a regular word. The speech machine does not recognize this and changes this H to T and adds a vowel to it on its own
Yes. Because Samiah is a proper name here while the rest are actually adjectives and it's OK to have Tanwin (-tun) at their ends.
Interestingly enough, the word Samiah means (the exalted one). If I'm to use this word as an adjective, then it can have the Tanwin at its end, and becomes (Samiatun), but not as a proper name. Just an example: أخلاقٌ ساميةٌ (axláqun sámiyatun) - high manners.
hehe actually I just woke up when I typed that answer. Believe it or not, I typed it (market) several times and kept on deleting and re-typing it as (marker) and still couldn't get it right - I'm craving chocolate here a LOT and really wanna go and get some but shopping nowadays as you know is not that easy like before and I can't just go out at any time ... hehe so probably that was playing at the back of my head while I was typing my answer
I can't see much rhyme or reason to the disappearance of REPLY. There was no REPLY option to your post "Yes, actually..." but good old Benton.1 did reply. He (You, Benton) must have pressed REPLY to some earlier post? Anyway, the fact is that I am unable to block a text and copy and paste it, except for my own before I've sent it. Also if I choose to edit it, it becomes copiable. What a nuisance that it can't be done otherwise. Thanks for pointing out the screen-copy option.
Yes he actually did click Reply for an earlier post not the latest in the thread.
The lingots are like "money" on Duolingo. Used to show appreciation to someone. Also, when you do exercises on Duolingo and do tasks while learning a language you are rewarded more lingots. Lingots can be used to "buy" some items from the Shop on Duolingo (the "shop" icon should be up there) - this is just virtual money on Duolingo.
A little thing: when you were explaining why you kept writing "market" instead of "marker", in answer to Benton's witticism about a souq for letters, you wrote "I just woke up when I wrote that". I had to read it twice to understand it. It's an American use of tense. England-English speakers would say, "I had just woken up when I wrote that", because of course the waking had happened before you writing. "I just woke up when ..." could mean "I only woke up when..." eg "... he came in". But the Americans seem to have given up on the pluperfect. Also on the perfect ("I've had breakfast" - I think they're more likely to say "I had breakfast".)
hehe yeah it could be an American influence, since I have some and actually the culture here is now more influenced by them. Early in schools here we would study British English but once you go into college here, most of the books are in American English; Spelling-wise and also publisher-wise. Anyway, yeah i think it makes much more sense to say (I had just woke up). Hehe it could also be just a grammatical mistake from my side. When I type my blog posts (Arabic and English) I do discover a lot of typos and grammatical issues. After all, I don't proof-read usually. I just type as the thoughts flow takes place.
Another thing I find puzzling, is that the letter with the two dots beneath it, and which seems to serve as a long "i", seems to be treated as a consonant by the diacritic system, in that it gets a little zero above it (sorry, I can't remember what that's called) if there isn't a short vowel above it. Really weird.
hehe this thread is becoming too long that I'm digging to find a "reply" button to click. Well, I'm in Kuwait. My blog is about photography (originally was about my constructed language "Ayvarith"). If you like to check it out it's on http://ayvarith.blogspot.com/ (the next post will take place April 16th hopefully).
As for the letter: Arabic uses letters for long vowels, and diacritics or markers for short vowels, beside Sukún (the circle) and Shaddah (the little "w"). Sukún is used to "stabilize" the letter, meaning it is to note that the letter is not moved by any vowel. Shaddah is to double the consonant.
The letter you've mentioned is ي (Yá') and it is indeed treated as a long vowel (ee, or í as I like to type it), or as a consonant (Y). With the markers on top (or below) we would know how to treat this letter; as a long vowel or as a consonant. This is the idea, but I've noticed that Duolingo screws up the system sometimes. Anyway, it is enough to know that ي and و do act both: A consonant, and a long vowel.
This is marvellous, to have all this explicit, I mean about Ya and Waw. The former is rather like the English Y, innit, since it can act as vowel or consonant. But, off the top of my head, the English W is always a semi-vowel. Ah, but it seems to me I've seen Ya with a sukun on it even though it was obviously a vowel. I suppose that was just a Duolingo screw up. I'll check out your blog. One of the words Duolingo uses to teach the alphabet - damn, I can't find it, I'll ask you about it later if that's all right.
Katie, to joke with TJ, I simply started a new post, since Duolingo only allows around seven replies to a specific post. This reply to you, I started directly under your comment above, but it shows up down here instead of indented directly under your comment to which I'm replying. Go figure. :/
Thank you. And I just input ممتاز (managed to type it myself!!!) in Google Translate, and indeed it gave "excellent". When I input "amazing", it translated it as رائعة حقا (I copied and pasted that from Google Translate). But that's two words, isn't it? What does it mean literally?
yep it's two words. رائعة (rá'i3ah) alone can mean (amazing) or (wonderful) too. رائعة حقا (rá'i3atun Haqqan) just means (really wonderful)
as a bonus: رائعة جدا (rá'i3atun jiddan) means (very wonderful/amazing), i know it doesn't sound normal in English but it can be used that way in Arabic expressions.
Thank you! I investigated the two separate words (ra'i3ah Haqqan), and Google Translate gave me "oh really" (!) for حقا . I keep hearing N's all over the place. I suppose I'll just have to put up with it and wait till Duolingo explains the grammar of it to me. Google Translate transliterated حقا as "haqana", though the last "a" wasn't heard in the audio for it. Oh, it's so complicated! Incidentally, could you possibly tell me how one can close the day's session on Duolingo? It feels very messy to me that when I've decided that I've done enough, I just stop, without closing anything. the only live button is the CONTINUE one. Or have I missed something?
Well, to put it all together with the vowel markets, it would be حَقًّا (Haqqan). It translates to "really" usually. The word is derived from حق (true/right) and in this place it is transformed into an adverb, so it means (truly/really).
To explain why there is Alif at the end, I have to return the basics. Tanwin or Nunation.
In Arabic (as well as old extinct Semitic languages) is a special type of vowel called Tanwin or Nunation. In some languages, like Akkadian (extinct) this was done with (M) so it is typically called Mimation (or Tamyim). Anyway, the theory says that such sound was actually nasal, but in time it developed into a full N-sound in Arabic.
Tanwin in Arabic has various applications. One of the basic usages is to be a marker for the indefinite noun, somehow like the a/an in English. For example, (book) would be كتابٌ (kitábun) and (the book) is الكتابُ (al-kitábu). Of course, such vowels at the end of the words would drop when they come at the end of the sentence; No need to add them if no continuation of speech is needed.
Now, Tanwin comes in 3 flavors: -an, -in, and -un. That depends on the status of the word (nominative, accusative...etc). I don't want to go into grammatical details here.
Anyway, from these 3 flavors, the -an Tanwin is the only one that is written with a vowel marker (double fatHa on top of each other; I would type it here but the font is so small), AND and Alif. Other Tanwin flavors do not get Alif. The addition of this Alif is something rooted deeply in the rhyme and the Arabic speech. Suppose the word comes at the end of the sentence, one can drop Tanwin, but here with -an Tanwin, the Alif is survives the spelling. Not sure why, but this is how speech is.
This being said, there are common expressions used in daily life or in literature where -an Tanwin survives still despite being at the end of the word and sentence, like: شكرًا (šukran: thanks), عفوًا (3afwan: welcome), حقًا (Haqqan: really). These expressive words are like an abbreviation for whole sentences and typically one would say them with their Tanwin at the end.
As I've mentioned earlier, Tanwin can be considered a marker for the indefinite nouns, but there are usages, like here in the expressive words above; Most of them are adverbs. Adverbs in Arabic are typically declined in that way with -an Tanwin to their ends. Hope all of that makes sense now.
I don't know much about the sessions here on Dulingo really. I usually do a set of 20 sentences or so and after I finish this set or exercise I get some percentage of progress. When I reach 100% I finish one level in that skill. Until I finish 5 levels of that skill, the button for that skill turns gold and I'm technically finished with it. Well, this is how it works for me here. Not sure if the Arabic course follows the same method - it is a mess as far as I know and not sure if they fixed much about it.
Dear TJ_Q8, Why can't I reply to your message beginning, "Well, to put it all together with the vowel..."? There isn't the usual "REPLY EDIT DELETE" after it. I just wanted to say that I appreciate your detailed explanation, but that it's a bit advanced for me, even though grammar doesn't daunt me normally - I know Russian and Latin and Greek - but Arabic is quite new to me. And I wanted to copy and paste your message for myself later, but for some reason it's not possible to block text and copy it. How annoying. Do you know any way round that? (How curious: one can copy and post one's own message before one's sent it.)
Yes, actually Duolingo removes the Reply button when the thread gets long. Apparently they didn't change that.
As for copying, I don't know really why you are having a problem with copying any text. I can simply click-drag over the text to shade it and then press CTRL and C to copy it. If you are on PC you are supposed to be able to do this. Anyway, if that didn't work for some reason I don't know of, you always take a shot of the screen (if you like) by pressing that button on the keyboard marked with "PrtScr" (usually), which stands for (print screen). Once you do this, paste the image in any painting program or even in Microsoft's WORD program as an image. But again, copying text should be working normally here: shade the text, copy it.