Translation:We are delighted with our teacher.
The verb is begeistern = to inspire/delight/thrill. Its past participle begeistert is being used as a predicate adjective or false passive with sein.
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The sentence ‘Wir sind von unserer Lehrerin begeistert.’ is a genuine passive construction, as evidenced by the demoted agent ‘von unserer Lehrering’ = “with our teacher”). This type of passive is called “stative passive” (‘sein-Passiv’, or ‘Zustandspassiv’), as opposed to “dynamic passive” (‘werden-Passiv’, or ‘Vorgangspassiv’).
In active voice, the subject of the verb is the “agent’, the one doing the action. In passive voice, the “patient” of the verb, which would normally be the object, is promoted to be the subject, while the agent is omitted or demoted.
In a predicate-adjective construction, such as ‘Wir sind froh.’ = “We are happy.”, there is no demoted or implied missing agent.
When you see "Geist," think of "ghost," and from there "spirit." Many uses of "Geist" correspond to uses of "spirit" in English. In this case, "begeistert" can be directly translated to "spirited" - both mean excited and energetic, although the usages can be different (as seen in this sentence, where you wouldn't want to use "spirited").
I think of the word enthused as slang. One is enthusiastic over something, not enthused about. I suppose over the years this may have changed, but I would still use the word captivated or excited about. May be my age, but enthused sounds like a word an educated person would not often use, except when imitating a lack of education.
The Oxford English Dictionary is wrong to use the word "ignorant" when it gives examples of the word being used in respectable places over 100 years ago. It is not the business of lexicographers to give value judgments about the formation of words; their job is to record how words are used. "Enthused" has been an accepted part of the language for a long time.
A dictionary's only job is to record words and their definitions, but since word usage changes inevitably, then a dictionary has no place in determining "acceptable" words. The word "hussy" used to mean one who kept house ( a housewife), and the original meaning of the word "nice" wasn't. Nice, that is.
I'm not 100% sure, but I think that 'begeistert' is the passive form of the verb. And as in English, the passive form is the same for all pronouns. The only verb that changes is the verb 'be'. For example:
- I AM eaten.
- He IS eaten
- They ARE eaten
So is in German.
- Ich BIN begeistert
- Du BIST begeistert
- Er IST begeistert
- Ihr SEID begeistert
Any one, please correct me if I'm wrong!
In this case it is the participle being used as an adjective. For example in English you say "We are delighted with our teacher". Delighted is the participle of the verb "to delight" and in this case it is working as an adjective. The structure in German changes and so does the preposition in this case. It literally means: "we are with our teacher delighted". That'd be an aweful translation though. I hope that helps
The German word for delighted is 'hocherfreut', so why has 'begeistert', which means 'enthusiastic' changed to a different word entirely? I know there has to be flexablity and I am not looking for a literal translation,but on occasions I wonder how you get from, in this instance, enthusiastic to delighted in one mental leap, when the words mean totally different things.