Aus to talk about something came from inside something, it was inside to went out like du kommst aus Deutschland, Here you were inside the country and went out also Vogel kommt aus Ei. Von to talk about something from point to another, Von Berlin nach Paris. also used for time Von 9:00 bis 12:00
Basically 'von meine Fenster' is from my window and 'aus meinem Fenster' is I see you out of my window. Aus would be used in a sentence like 'I looked out of my windows' 'ich habe aus meinem Fenster geguckt' and von would be a sentence like 'you can see the street from my window' 'Mann kann die Straße von meine Fenster sehen'
Both indicate a point of origin, however "aus" is used when talking about: cities (aus Leipzig) states (aus Sachsen) countries (aus Luxemburg) continents (aus Europa)
"von" is used when talking about: buildings (vom Bahnhof) institutions (von der Uni) places of residence (von meinem Freund) point of departure (von Berlin nach Potsdam)
More specifically, "aus" is coming out from inside of a place. I could be mistaken, but I get the impression that "von meinem Haus" kind of means "from the location where my house is", as opposed to "from the inside of my house", which is what "aus" would imply. To reiterate though, I could be wrong! This is just the impression that I get. Some confirmation from someone who knows better would be nice.
You could imagine being in your house and looking out of the window. You would see from your house as if your gaze is something that moves from you to the world outside. You wouldn't necessarily have to see someone who's nearby as your gaze could move to the other side of the street, through your neighbours' windows or even further down the streets.
As far as I understand it: "von meimen Haus" means "from the location of my house" (ie; from the vantage point of the location where my house is, I can see you), while "aus meinem Haus" means "out from the inside of my house" (ie; I can see you exiting my house). If someone who knows better could confirm this, that would be appreciated, but this is the impression I'm left with.
Translating prepositions is always tricky.
"von = of, by, from" in the sense that sometimes von can be translated with "of", sometimes with "by", sometimes with "from": yes.
"von = of, by, from" in the sense that von can ALWAYS be translated with any of those: no. The meanings of the prepositions do not overlap completely.
Er wurde von meinem Bruder gesehen = He was seen by my brother. Here it works, because both von and "by" are used to indicate the actor in a passive sentence.
But in Duo's sentence, von does not mean "by", because this is not about the actor of a passive sentence, but uses the basic spatial meaning indicating the origin of something.
To me as a native speaker, this sentence sounds incomplete. It is not wrong, but we would say "Ich sehe dich von meinem Haus aus" I understand why the "aus" is not in this exercise because its hard to explain. It is only used if you have a clear point from where you are doing something. "Vom Turm aus kann ich die ganze Stadt sehen" (I can see the whole city from the tower) but "Ich sehe dich von weitem" (i see you from afar) - the "aus" would be wrong here