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I don't see how that follows? "Resposta" is right there, i.e. the noun is mentioned explicitly, so why the article still?
Sua here implies a conjugation pattern that can be found in Spanish, when Sua refers to you formal, like suya in Spanish. It can also mean his and her as you stated.
But in Brazil it's the other way around. sua is the informal your (singular) and the formal his/her.
So better to denote it as 3rd Person conjugation perhaps (especially since tua is the informal you in Portugal, and most of Europe whence it was born).
An English perspective:
However, I am curious now to know what the informal his/her is in Portugal. :)
When "what" can be replaced by "which" it is preferabe to use "qual", but we cant settle a rule about that
Generally "o que" translates to "what" in English, and "qual/quais" to "which", but when you are using the verb "to be" (ser, é, são) as in "What is...?" or "What are...?" you use qual/quais unless you are asking for a definition of a concept. "Qual é a resposta?" asks for the specific answer, whereas "O que é a resposta?" is weird and would be like asking in an abstract sense what "reposta" means. This is my understanding, but please native speakers correct me if I'm wrong! :)
It's not grammatical in English to say "Which is your answer?" unless you had a finite number of possibilities "Like which of these is your answer?/Which one is your answer?" So in this case I would translate qual as what.
I'm native speaker of portuguese and I totally agree. "O que é" in this case is weird, exactly as you said!
I hope you reported it.
I also got it wrong and submitted a report to have the answer accepted.
"Which" implies choosing among a few answers (yes/no, a,b,c, etc.) while "What" is more open and allows for a completely different answer than expected even.
Yes, that's right. (I know because I'm a native speaker of the English language).
However, there can be a scenario where several responses are presented to a person to choose which of them is his/her answer. In such a scenario, insofar as qual can also mean "which one", I believe that 'which one is your answer' is also a valid translation.
Depends on the sentence, both mean what, but "qual" is specific like "which one", while qué just states "what"
"Which" would be incorrect because the question does not offer a selection of answers, when asking you to translate. So, "What" would be the right answer. I hope this helps and I do not confuse you more. :)
In what situation would you use 'a sua' rather than just 'sua' on its own?
In Portuguese we very commonly put an article before every noun as a 'specifier', in case you're talking: about something specific (in this case you use the definite articles "o" and "a") or when you don't know exactly where the thing is or when the thing happened or who the person is etc. but you know it exists and it's something and it happened and it is someone etc. (you get it?) (in this case you use the indefinite articles "um" and "uma") - don't worry, I'll give examples! If you're talking about something that possibly could have happened or can happen, you normally don't use any article. Attention: when I say "YOU're talking about something specific you know all about", I mean YOU AND WHO YOU'RE TALKING TO; if you know specifically what the thing is but the person to whom you're talking doesn't, then you use the indefinite article. Examples:
"Li o livro" = I read the book -> certainly, you and the person with whom you're having the conversation know what the book is, what copy of it you're talking about - out of the infinite amount of copies of the same book that can exist -, in this case, you use the definite article; exactly as the sentence "Qual é a sua resposta?": you and the person know there is an answer.
"Passe-me um cookie" = Give me a cookie -> you know there are cookies in there but you have no ideia what cookie - out of that amount - you'll receive. So you generalize by putting "um". Saying "passe-me o cookie" sounds like there's only one cookie and then you know exactly what cookie you'll receive.
"Não há dúvida" = There's no doubt -> you're talking about something that could have happened but didn't. As you don't know when exactly it could have happened or what it'd be about, you put no article. Until here I think my explanation wasn't much helpful, uh? You probably already know all these things because they're used the same way in English, so let's go to what matters:
"Ela está com o seu lápis" = She's with [the] your pencil = She's with the pencil of yours -> It sounds terribly strange saying "the your pencil", doesn't it? But, in Portuguese it's very very common. I said we use articles as 'specifiers' of the noun; it happens too with adjective pronouns, but sometimes - when both the people know exactly what the thing is - the article and pronoun can be used simultaneously. In fact, it's just optional. Every sentence that has "o seu ..." or "a sua ..." can work very well without the article. The sentence above could perfectly be "Qual é sua resposta?", but I suggest you to put the article. Attention: We never never never use indefinite articles in this case, like "Qual é uma sua resposta?"; just definite!!!
In Brazilian can you use seu/sua with você to differentiate it from his/her?