"لا أُحِبّ اَلْطَّقْس اَلْبارِد."
Translation:I do not like cold weather.
Linguistically, you can (but it must be with Tanwin because it is indefinite: لا أحب طقساً بارداً).
Meaning-wise, I doubt it would bear any specific meaning this way unless it comes maybe in some specific context where a person would want to use an indefinite noun (and its adjective). I can't think of any context right now though (just arrived from work after a heavy traffic jam :))
Not much rules I would say here, but if you are talking about something known general, or known to you and to the receiver, then definite article is used. If not, and you are speaking about an instance of something or a single thing of particular type of items, then indefinite is used (I guess same as the case in English or German here).
أكلتُ برتقالة = I ate an orange (meaning some random orange)
أكلتُ البرتقالة = I ate the orange (here, there must be one specific orange that you and the listener or receiver know about or it has something special in it, so you are pointing to it here with the definite article AL).
Hope that clarifies something :)
Thank you for the explanation. Maybe the example here with the weather is a bit special. In English in German we don't use an article at all. Something else: I estimate your help very much. But please do not feel obligated to response to all our sometimes silly questions, when you are stressed.
It's OK. I'm replying back whenever I can really :)
Just now, I thought of an example for a sentence for طقس بارد without an article. Like for example, we might say:
واجهتُ طقسا باردا في فنلندا (wájahtu Taqsan báridan fí Finlanda) = I faced a cold weather in Finland
As you can see, here I've used طقسا باردا without a definite article (AL) but in the mean time, I've specified its location (Finland). The expression might be somewhat like telling a surprise (like I didn't expect such cold weather in Finland for some reason). So, it's not impossible to mention the words here without a definite article, but it's just the meaning and the context that decides when to use it. If we are speaking about a general info, like I don't like cold weather (which means in general, I don't like ANY cold weather, all types of cold weather), then such general sense for such expressions come with a defining article in Arabic, unlike in English.
This is a sentence where Duo is going for meaning. According to TJ_Q8's explanations, it seems that when Arabic uses ال this sentence it is equivalent to the general statement in English "I don't like cold weather (ever! period!)" When we use "the weather" in English, we always imply or state a time or place: I do not like the cold weather (we had this week, in North Dakota, during winter). I'm curious whether in Arabic longer sentences like those would never use ال.
It's hard to see a long sentence in Arabic without AL in some way. The usage of AL plays a major role in the grammar of Arabic. Just to begin with, a nominal sentence (sentences starting with nouns) cannot start without the noun being definite (i.e. with AL). There are few exceptions to this rule but in a very strict manner. In the Genitive compound (X of Y type of compounds), AL also plays a major connector between the 2 nouns (even though it can be removed as well).
It's just the mechanism or the criteria by which the definite article is used or thought of in Arabic can be quite different from its English counterpart.