Why does "bitene kadar" mean "until the end"? "Bitmek" means "to end" and "kadar" requires the dative, but how do we get to "biten" and what does it mean?
-en is a suffix to add to a verb to get a present participle and may give these meanings
- biten = the one that ends, what ends
- bitenler = those that end
- biten iş = the work that has ended
That said in "bitene kadar" there is "zarffiil" (those clauses that act like an adverb) form and it should be memorized as "-ene kadar" and gives the meaning "until".
- iş bit-ene kadar çalışır = she works until the work ends
- o gel-ene kadar bir yere gitme = do not go anywhere until he comes
- yat-ana kadar tv seyrettik = we watched tv until we go to bed
- ali gid-ene kadar, veli tek laf etmedi = until ali went, veli didn't say a word
Notice that first two examples are in present tense and the last two in past tense but "-ene kadar" does not change with the tense.
What about "Onun gelmesine kadar bir yere gitme."? Would that work for "Do not go anywhere until he comes"?
Close. It tranlates to "until his/her coming, do not go anywhere". It's gramatically correct but native speakers would prefer "o gelene kadar bir yere gitme" though.