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  5. "This man is Torg."

"This man is Torg."

Translation:torgh ghaH loDvam'e'.

August 12, 2019



torgh ghaH loDvam I thought that 'e' was optional, being used more to show a kind of respect to the subject. I don't understand why it is required here. Maybe I don't think highly enough of poor Torg?


When optional, -'e' is used to give focus to a particular noun, whether a respectful focus or not.

HeS torgh. Torg commits crime.

HeS torgh'e' It's Torg who commits crime.

But as David says, in this particular sentence, -'e' is not optional. It's an idiomatic pattern, so you can just memorize that to say NounA is/are [a/the] NounB you say B 'oH/ghaH/chaH/bIH A'e'

You can also use -'e' to talk about a noun without otherwise giving it a grammatical role in the sentence.

Sajmey'e' targh vImaS When it comes to pets, I prefer the targ.


-'e' in this kind of sentence is not optional, and it isn't used to show respect to the subject. (There's only one kind of grammatical respect marker in Klingon: the type 8 verb suffix -neS, which is always optional and only used for showing respect to a superior.)


Yikes. Looks like I really have no idea what I'm talking about. I'm glad that someone is paying attention.


The use of -'e' is a complex subject and this course doesn't really address the full complexity. We only teach and demonstrate two uses of -'e'. We teach it with pronouns acting like a "to be" verb (like this sentence) because that's the one time it is absolutely required. And we also teach the optional use of -'e' to disambiguate which noun is the head noun of a -bogh clause.

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