I am having difficulties making sense of the pronouns mixed with verbs. (juleghlah 'a' choleghlah 'a', vilegh, jilegh,) you see them, you see us, we see you, they see, etc... Is there any good way to remember these or make sense of them?
Why is I can't see you " qaleghlaHbe' " instead of "jileghlaHbe' or "vileghlaHbe' "?
Also how can one distinguish between "I can read" and "I can read it", (vIlaDlaH)?
And are there Klingon flash cards available for free somewhere I can access?
Here's a chart of all the verb prefixes. You basically just have to memorize them. I've never heard of a memorization mnemonic that works.
When writing in Klingon using the Latin script, it is conventional to always capitalize or lowercase correctly. I (the vowel) should always be capitalized.
qaleghlaHbe' I can't see you
qa- I (subject), you-singular (object)
jIleghlaHbe' I can't see
jI- I (subject), no object
vIleghlaHbe' I can't see him/her/it/them
vI- I (subject), him/her/it/them (object)
jIlaDlaH I can read
vIlaDlaH I can read it
I've seen Klingon flashcards, but I can't point you to any.
Thank you!!!!!!! That information is very helpful. Very well explained!
An explanation is given in the Tips & Notes, but our space for explaining things is limited and sometimes seeing it explained a couple different ways or times can help. However, based on the wording of your questions, I wonder if maybe you haven't seen the Tips & Notes. Since Duolingo has hidden the Tips & Notes I want to make sure you know about them and where to find them. If you have not been reading the Tips & Notes, I would like to ask that you review those so we don’t have to repeat too much of the information that we have explained there.
If you are doing the course on iOS or Android, you cannot currently access the Tips & Notes through the app. To access the Tips & Notes, you will have to access the course using a web browser at https://www.duolingo.com/. You can still do it on your mobile device, but you will have to use the web browser instead of the app (or you can do it from a computer). When you click on a Skill, it will expand to reveal a Start button, a key, and a light bulb.
If you click on the light bulb it will reveal the Tips & Notes and give you a detailed explanation of the grammar that is introduced in that Skill. If you have questions after reading the Tips & Notes for any Skills, then please return to the forum to ask your question, explaining what you didn’t understand or what seems contradictory to you. You will usually find some pretty good help here when something is confusing.
A process that has worked for some speakers is to:
Step 1: memorize the table of prefixes, just memorize it as a table so you can mentally look things up without physically pulling out your computer or crumpled bit of paper. I did this by writing it out over and over again, trying to write it out from memory, then looking at the ones I missed, and trying to memorize those to fill in the gaps.
Step 2: Practice. Talk and write about and on behalf of yourself, others, groups of people, so you're using all the prefixes. At first this means that you're going to have a long pause at the beginning of every verb while you roll your eyes into your head to "look up" the prefix in your mental table, but you have to do this work. Memorizing little snippets of Klingon that include prefixes will help. There's a recording where Klingons ask their commander chay' jura' to remember the you (sing) - us prefix
Step 3: One day you'll have something to say and the correct prefix will pop out of your mouth and you'll be so surprised and impressed with yourself, that you'll remember it forever.
But you've got to do the work. Sorry. If I knew a shortcut, I would have been teaching it for the last twenty years.
There's a Level I certification exam that the KLI gives (and Qov developed the KLI online course that prepares learners for the exam). Many (though not all) of the prefixes are tested on the exam. A pretty standard technique is that when learners recieve the test paper the first thing they do is draw a prefix chart on the back of the paper and get all of it out of their head and onto the paper so that then the rest of the test they can focus on other aspects of the questions and just flip to their chart for the prefixes.