LEARN ARABIC WITH JAWAD - HOW TO READ ARABIC WITH FEW DIACRITICS
The Arabs can read a text in which there are no diacritics - I'll give you some tips that will help you in knowing how to read some cosonants on which there are no diacritics.
1. every time you see (ا) after a consonant in the same word - the consonant is ((maftoo7ah))
in the word (بابا) we don't need to put ((fat7a)) on (ب) to be sure that this consonant is ((maftoo7ah)) and that it has only one possible reading : baabaa
other ex :
باب - حِساب - زاد - وِداد - بِلاد - ماء - هَواء - سُعاد - رَماد - عالَم
baab - 7isaab - zaad - widaad - bilaad - maa2 - hawaa2 - so3aad - ramaad - 3aalam
the maximum of diacritics that the writer must use in order that a beginner can read the words correctly is only one
at the end of some words you'll find (ـى) or (ى)- called in arabic ((al2alifo lma9Soorah)) - it's another writing to the (ا) - the consonant before (ـى) or (ى) is always ((maftoo7ah))
in the word (هُدى) we don't need to put ((fat7a)) on (د) to be sure that this consonant is ((maftoo7ah)) and that it has only one possible reading : daa - the reading of the whole word is : hodaa
other ex :
رِضى - عَلى - ضُحى - رحى - عصى - قلى - شوى - هوى
riDaa - 3alaa - Do7aa - ra7aa - 3aSaa - 9alaa - chawaa - hawaa
rq : I use ch to transliterate ش instead of sh to ovoid any confusion with the transliteration of سه - you have to read ch as in french not as the english ch
at the end of some words you'll find (ـة) or (ة)- called in arabic ((attaa2o lmarbooTah)) which means ((the tied tee)) - the consonant before (ـة) is always ((maftoo7ah))
in the word (غابة) we don't need to put ((fat7a)) on (ب) to be sure that this consonant is ((maftoo7ah)) and that it has only one possible reading : bah - the reading of the whole word is : ghaabah - and as the (غ) is followed with (ا) - we are not obliged to put ((fat7a)) on it - this means that we every one can read (غابة) without diacritics at all.
other ex :
ناقة - عَلاقة - إعاقة - حَماقة - سَعادة - إبادة - كِتابة
naa9ah - 3alaa9ah - i3aa9ah - 7amaa9ah - sa3aadah - ibaadah - kitaabah
you see once again that I don't need a lot of diacritics to be able to read
I am a complete beginner at learning arabic. But I think you are stressing an important point for reading arabic : all the voyels are not written. And it is a big difficulty for beginners.
If a word has one or two short voyels, we cannot know which ones they are if no diacritics.
So for reading, you often need to know the word before. Often, not always.
Each language has its own difficulties. Turkish, the structure of the sentence. French, all the letters that are not pronounced and the link or not between two words. German, the declensions. Etc, etc...