I thought that "merhaba" is hello, What is the difference between them?
Im not sure the exact translation, but ive been told it puts an emphasise or direction towards who you are speaking to.
For example if there is a group of people you would say hello, but if you are saying hello to one person in the group you could add the "ya" and their name if you like.
Why is there sukun (little circle) above the ha letter? According to my pocket grammar (A. S. Tritton, Arabic [Teach Yourself Books] 18), "every consonant, which has no vowel immediately following it, is marked by sukun." It sounds like an /a / sound to me and if that is correct why wouldn't it just have a fatha like the alif?
Hi! That would be because technically, the letter after 'ha' is 'la' (ل ), which is a consonant. As the 'la' and 'aa' letters are conjugated into this formation --> لأ it can sometimes seem like the letter immediately after the 'ha' is 'aa', but that is not the case! Hope this made some sort of sense haha.