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Expanding Vocabulary: The Cognate Method (Part 3)

Previous Parts

  • Part 1 (Introduction, Words ending in -al)
  • Part 2 (Words ending in -ion, Words beginning with dys-/des-/dis-)

Rule of Thumb Four: English words ending in -ant or -ent

Many English words ending in -ant or -ent have related words in Esperanto. Some of them drop the endings, especially when the related term is a verb or adjective. Here are some examples:

  • abundant - abunda
  • accent - akcento (emphasized syllable), akĉento (speech manner influenced by mother tongue)
  • accident - akcidento
  • agent - agento
  • amendment - amendi (to amend)
  • apartment - apartamento
  • argument - argumenti (to argue)
  • arrogant - aroganta
  • assistant - asisti (to assist)
  • brilliant - brilianto (fine-cut diamond), brili (to shine)
  • client - kliento
  • comment - komenti (to comment)
  • compliment - komplimento
  • consent - konsenti (to agree)
  • consonant - konsonanto
  • constant - konstanta
  • current - kurento (electric current)
  • department - departemento
  • document - dokumento
  • elegant - eleganta
  • element - elemento
  • elephant - elefanto
  • equivalent - ekvivalento
  • excrement - ekskremento
  • experiment - eksperimento
  • ferment - fermenti (to ferment)
  • fragment - fragmento
  • gallant - galanta
  • impertinent - impertinenta
  • incident - incidento
  • indignant - indigni (to be indignant)
  • instrument - instrumento
  • intelligent - inteligenta
  • invent - inventi
  • lieutenant - leŭtenanto
  • lubricant - lubriki (to lubricate)
  • militant - militi (to make war)
  • present - prezenti (to present)

Rule of Thumb Five: English words ending in -ible or -able

Perhaps obvious due to the prefix, -ebl, but many words ending in -ible and -able in English have Esperanto equivalents. However, not all equivalents end up being formed with this suffix - some instead take the suffix -ind, while others preserve -abl(a/o) or -ibl(a/o) as part of the root, or drop that part entirely. Here are some examples:

  • abominable - abomeni (to loathe)
  • affable - afabla
  • capable - kapabla
  • comfortable - komforta
  • credible - kred-ebla
  • divisible - divid-ebla
  • flexible - fleks-ebla
  • mandible - mandiblo
  • measurable - mezur-ebla
  • memorable - memor-inda
  • miserable - mizera | mizero (misery)
  • moveable - mov-ebla
  • navigable - navig-ebla
  • pleasurable - plezura | plezuro (pleasure)
  • provable - pruv-ebla
  • punishable - pun-inda
  • reasonable - racia | racio (reason)
  • tolerable - toler-ebla
  • visible - vid-ebla
  • invisible - ne-vid-ebla
August 21, 2019

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