"I like talking with my father in the afternoon."
Translation:أُحِبّ اَلْكَلام مَعَ أَبي بَعْد اَلْظُّهْر.
So so. But it has nothing to do with the father.
The main issue here is about the nature of the word, which Duolingo is simply using a dialect format of speech.
The word الكلام (al-kalám) can simply translate to (the talk). In this sentence though it would be more proper to use التكلم (al-takallum) or التحدث (al-ta7adduþ). Both of these words are nouns or names for the action. While الكلام is simply a noun of the "object". In other words, to put things in a closer perspective to English:
- الكلام: The talk.
- التكلّم: the talking.
- التحدّث: the conversing
In this sentence, the speaker is supposedly liking the "action" and not the "object" (hence in English it says I like talking and not I like the talk). Thus, التكلم is more proper for this context than الكلام.
Side note: Conversation is حديث (and it can be also translated as Narration in some aspect).