Look at: "the bottle of wine" >> "die Flasche Wein" where "the" is attached to "bottle". In German too. "The wine bottle", where "the" is again attached to "bottle". "die Weinflasche" shows a characteristic of German which English has much less frequently: words attached to each other. When the words are not attached, the article belongs to the first noun, when they are attached, the article belongs to the last noun in the combination.
Dative case can be applied after certain prepositions like [on/off/above etc] the table, where the "der" in "der Tisch" changes to dem because Tisch is a masculine object in the dative case.
Be sure to watch his whole video and the Part I video. I watched it 2 times, and finally understood the four german cases.
I was finally getting used to der, die, and das, but then dem and den roll around and it's really confusing because now everything's different. I need help. Badly.
'Auf' is a two way preposition - so it can indicate accusative or dative depending on usage. The way to determine which case for two way prepositions is the motion vs location rule.
If there is motion towards something or a specific location -> accusative. ("wohin", where to?) If there is no motion or motion going nowhere then -> dative. ("Wo?" where?)
In this case, you could think of this as an answer to "Where (dative) is the bottle of wine?" -> the bottle of wine is on the table. If I were to say "Legen Sie das Buch auf den Tisch." (As in Put the book on the table) it would indicate motion to the table and would be accusative.
I am not native english speaker. Could you help me understand translations from german to english? With example sentence "Das Hänchen ist auf dem Tisch" - "Chicken is on the top of the table" Does it refer to the table with uneven surface (it has different levels; may be special table for cooks? Although I have never seen such). Is it necessary to underline "on the top"? Does anyone can understand it wrong - "Next to the table; behind the table; above the table"? In this exercise bottle of wine is just on the table. Does it have some additional meaning I can't see? Thanks for your help!
In this combination, bottle is the noun attached to the article. Wine is more of a descriptor of the bottle. We are saying that the bottle, which holds wine, is on the table. I imagine it would be the same for a phrase like "the dinner plate". It is not the dinner itself, but the plate that holds it.
When two nouns are together separated by a space you take the gender of the first noun. If there are multiple nouns joined together without being separated by any space, you take the gender of the last noun. So it is Die Flasche Wein because Flasche is feminine and it is the first noun, separated by a space from Wein. Der Flaschenwein is an example of two nouns joined together without a space so in this case you take the gender of the last noun : Wein. Der Wein.
I first learned German 100 years ago and I seem to remember that "auf dem Tische" (with e added to Tisch) was also correct. Is that still true? Is this archaic usage? Or am I remembering it completely wrong?