https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RobertoKin9

Expanding Vocabulary: The Cognate Method (Part 5 - Final)

Previous Parts

  • Part 1 (Introduction, Words ending in -al)
  • Part 2 (Words ending in -ion, Words beginning with dys-/des-/dis-)
  • Part 3 (Words ending in -ant or -ent, Words ending in -ible or -able)
  • Part 4 (Words ending in -ic, Words ending in -ence or -ance)

Rule of Thumb Eight - Words ending in -ist or -ism

Many words that end in -ist or -ism have equivalents in Esperanto. Because of how Esperanto word building works, many of these words end up with the endings -iisto since the root that the suffix -ist- is being added to ends in -i in Esperanto. (Some people drop -iisto, for a shorter word, such as "biologo" instead of "biologiisto." I personally recommend against this, since there's no grammatical basis for this rule in Esperanto.) Some examples are (less exact matches are in italics):

  • acupunturist - akupunktur-isto | akupunkturo (acupuncture)
  • alchemist - alĥemi-isto, alkemi-isto | alĥemio, alkemio (alchemy)
  • anarchist - anarĥi-isto, anarki-isto | anarĥio, anarkio (anarchy)
  • anatomist - anatomi-isto | anatomio (anatomy [science])
  • antisemitism - antisemit-ismo | antisemito (anti-Semite) [Note, you could also make a word like "kontraŭ-jud-ism-o" (anti-jew-ism)]
  • archeologist - arĥeologi-isto | arĥeologio (archeology)
  • archivist - arĥiv-isto | arĥivo (archive)
  • atheist, atheism - ateisto, ateismo
  • autism - aŭtismo
  • baptism - bapto | bapti (to baptize)
  • bassist - bas-isto | baso (bass)
  • bigamist - bigami-ulo | bigamio (bigamy)
  • biologist - biologi-isto | biologio (biology)
  • buddhist - budh-isto | Budho (Buddha)
  • calvinist - kalvin-isto, kalvin-ano | Kalvino (Calvin)
  • careerism - karier-ismo | kariero (career)
  • chemist - ĥemi-isto | ĥemio (chemistry)
  • dentist - dent-isto | dento (tooth)
  • elitism - elit-ismo | elito (elite)
  • empiricist, empiricism, - empiri-isto, empiri-ismo | empirio (knowledge-conveying experience)
  • fascist, fascism - faŝisto, faŝismo
  • feminist, feminism - femininisto, feminismo
  • pharmacist - farmaci-isto | farmacio (pharmacology)
  • racism, racist - ras-ismo, ras-isto, ras-isma | raso (race)
  • sexism - seks-ismo | sekso (biological sex)
  • theist, theism - teisto, teismo
  • tourist, tourism - turisto, turismo

"Rule of Thumb Nine" - Miscellaneous

Here are some miscellaneous minor rules (often less reliable than what has come come before), followed by a grab-bag of cognates.

  • Words ending in -ous
  • adulterous - adulta | adulti (to commit adultery)
  • ambitious - ambicia | ambicio (ambition)
  • amorphous - amorfa
  • analogous - analoga
  • audacious - aŭdaca | aŭdaci (to have the audacity to)
  • chivalrous - kavalira | kavaliro (knight)
  • conscientious - konscienca | konscienco (conscience)
  • courageous - kuraĝa
  • courious - kurioza
  • concious - konscia | konscii (to be conscious)
  • dangerous - danĝera
  • fabulous - fabela (extraordinary, unbelievable) | fabelo (fairy tale)
  • fictitious - fikcia | fikcio (fiction)
  • furious - furioza
  • gelatinous - gelateneca | gelateno (gelatin, jelly)
  • harmonious - harmonia | harmonio (harmony)
  • humorous - humura
  • indigenous - indiĝena | indiĝeno (indigenous person, aborigene)
  • jealous - ĵaluza (to be protective of what is yours) [Note: To want what others have is "envii."]
  • Words ending in -ty (often becomes -tato)
  • authority - aŭtoritato
  • faculty - fakultato
  • minority - minoritato
  • priority - prioritato
  • university - universitato
  • Words ending in -ct
  • abstract - abstrakta
  • afflict - aflikti (to afflict, to cause suffering)
  • aqueduct - akvo-dukto, akvedukto
  • architect - arĥitekto, arĥitekturisto
  • aspect - aspekto
  • cataract - katarakto
  • compact - kompakta
  • conduct - konduto | konduti (to conduct oneself) // konduki (to lead, to guide)
  • conflict - konflikto
  • construct - konstrui
  • contact - kontakto
  • correct - korekti (to correct) [Note: "Korekta" means "related to correcting something", to say "correct" you want "senerara" or "ĝusta."]
  • defect - difekto | difekti (to damage, to spoil)
  • dialect - dialekto
  • distract - distri (to distract, to entertain)
  • duct - dukto
  • effect - efiko (effect), efiki (to affect something) | efekto (impression)
  • elect - elekti (to choose) [Note: To vote is "voĉdoni."]
  • erect - erekta
  • exact - ekzakta
  • Words ending in -ary
  • canary - kanario
  • corollary - korolario
  • Mary - Mario, Maria
  • notary - notario
  • ovary - ovario
  • rosary - rozario
  • secretary - sekretario
  • seminary - seminario (seiminar, seminary)
  • Miscellany
  • absurd - absurda
  • acid - acido
  • admire - admiri
  • admonish - admoni
  • adore - adori (to worship, to adore)
  • age - aĝo
  • art - arto
  • attentive - atenta | atenti (to pay attention to)
  • autumn - aŭtuno
  • avid - avida
  • beat - bati
  • bird - birdo
  • cease - ĉesi, ĉesigi [Note: Intransitive]
  • certain - certa
  • chain - ĉeno
  • change - ŝanĝi
  • chase - ĉasi (to hunt, to chase)
  • chaste - ĉasta
  • cherry - ĉerizo
  • color - koloro
  • cost - kosti
  • court - korto
  • cover - kovri
  • desire - deziri
  • eagle - aglo
  • example - ekzemplo
  • fall - fali
  • finish - fini
  • fish - fiŝo
  • forget - forgesi
  • have - havi [Note: Never used to talk about past events, as in the English "I have talked to him."]
  • help - helpi
  • hour - horo
  • joy - ĝojo | ĝoji (to rejoice, to be glad)
  • just - ĵus
  • last - lasta
  • letter - letero
  • long - longa
  • message - mesaĝo
  • miracle - miraklo
  • mock - moki
  • money - mono
  • mountain - monto
  • move - movi iun, moviĝi [Note: This word is only transitive, unlike the English move which can be both transitive and intransitive]
  • murder - murdi
  • necessary - necesa
  • neighbor - najbaro
  • occupy - okupi
  • part - parto
  • pass - pasi (to pass) [Note: Not used for grades]
  • permit - permesi
  • rapid - rapida
  • receive - ricevi
  • respond - respondi
  • rich - riĉa
  • right - rajto
  • same - sama
  • search - serĉi
  • send - sendi
  • shark - ŝarko
  • ship - ŝipo
  • similar - simila
  • simple - simpla
  • sit - sidi
  • sole - sola (alone)
  • sun - suno
  • table - tablo
  • task - tasko
  • tempest - tempesto
  • train - trajno [Note: You can also say "vagonaro."]
  • turn - turni
  • type - tajpi
  • urban - urba | urbo (city)
  • urge - urĝi
  • use - uzi
  • valley - valo
  • value - valoro
  • village - vilaĝo
  • warm - varma
August 23, 2019

1 Comment


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/DaniJosB15

Dankon por via listo!

August 29, 2019
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