Translation:I got this book from that store.
yes indeed. dapat, mendapat, dapatkan, mendapatkan, pendapat, pendapatan, kedapatan, have all a different meaning. Dapat is the root. This is true for many words, and make Indonesian quite difficult.
Now don't ask me all the translations in English, as I don't know them in English. But I can give an example:
kenal = to know
mengenal = to know (formal)
mengenalkan = to introduce (formal)
dikenalkan oleh = to be introduced by (passive)
pengenalan = introduction
kenalan = introduce to each other
dikenal = famous
terkenal = most famous
memperkenalkan diri = introduce yourself
Comparing "me-kan" and "me-" verbs:
"Aku mendapatkan buku ini..."
"Aku mendapat buku ini..."
The former sentence implies that I finally managed to obtain the book. But the latter sentence (without -kan) suggests that the acquisition process is more passive.
For more explanations from native speakers, please refer to HiNative. https://hinative.com/questions/18174411