Novum Amstelodamum (We will not add it as an alternative translation though :P)
I live in the oldest town in Wales. In English it is Carmarthen. In Welsh it is Caerfyrddin. In Latin it is Moridunum.
When you come here, you will find all three names on signs around town. All mean Sea Castle.
I believe that scholars have agreed that it was actually pronounced ur"ps" despite how it's written? b gets devoiced and assimulated by s in these words.
Yes, /ʊrps/ is the agreed upon pronunciation for Classical Latin, with a short u.
why is 'urbs' in the nominative? the grammar of this example is needlessly confusing. 'New York is a city in America' would be easier.
In Latin, the complement of the finite copula is always in the nominative case. This is also the case in many other Indo-European languages like German (thus, "Ich bin ein Arzt", not "Ich bin einen Arzt".), Greek, Russian, etc. English is infinitely more ambiguous on this matter however and there were numerous attempts to standardize. We can not only say "I am him", "he is taller than me", but also "I am he" and "he is taller than I", of which only the latter two would be considered grammatically correct by many scholars (also correct in German, so you would say "Ich bin er" and "Er ist größer als ich").
This is an excellent explanation, thank you. I wasn't disagreeing with the grammar, which is, i know, correct - i was only meaning to grumble about the choice of the example which felt as a gut instinct needlessly complicating - BUT your explanation is so interesting it really helped me to understand why it felt needlessly complicating :-)
And that's why. Not getting it on the first try isn't a bad thing. You just learned that it doesn't work the way you thought it did. There's learning by rote memorization, and then there's learning the reason and the rules so as to better apply them elsewhere. I fell on my face on this one too, but that's why there's a forum on it: so we can better learn from it. It is, after all, why we're here. . .
in my Latin class we called only Rome urbs, other cities were called oppidum. Is that not the case?
Why is it novum eboracum instead of novi eboraci? And why is it americana instead of americanus?
Novum Eboracum is the nominative form. Novi Eboraci is the locative form. We don't use the locative here, because that is used when were are saying where something is located or happens. We are not saying this happens in the city of New York, so we do not use that form.
Americana is used since adjectives must agree with the noun that they are modifying. Urbs is feminine so we must use the feminine form of Americanus.
How do we know "Americanus" will change to "Americana" as America was not known about when Latin was spoken ?
While "America" wouldn't have been a word for the ancient Romans, it became apart of more the Latin that was used in the 1500s, 1600s. And the adjectives americanus, americana, and americanum would have just been a logical way to make an adjective to mean "American" or "pertaining to America".
America is the New World in Latin since 1500s. New York is americana indeed because it is in the New World, like Buenos Aires and Havana, but the Latin word for "American" is probably different.
Think of Persea americana, scientific name of avocado. There is a tradition for americanus, -a, but it means "from the Americas" (americano, -a in Spanish and Portuguese), not necessarily "American".
I believe the question doesn't have to do with the locative, but with the genitive.
Novum Eboracum can be used as the nominative, the accusative, or the vocative case.
Nominative when New York is the subject of the sentence, the thing 'doing the verb' (or used with esse [sum, es, est, etc.]). Example -> Novum Eboracum vias habet -> "New York has streets".
Accusative when New York is the direct object, the thing being directly affected by the action of the verb. Example -> Novum Eboracum videmus -> "We see New York".
Vocative is for directly addressing New York. Example -> Vale Novum Eboracum -> "Goodbye New York".
Novi Eboraci can be used as the genitive and the locative case.
Genitive often is used for 'possession' but has some other uses. Example -> Viae Novi Eboraci can be translated as "The streets of New York" or "New York's streets".
Locative is used to specify location, where something is or occurs. Example -> Novi Eboraci sumus -> "We are in New York".