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  5. "Salvete, Livia et Corinna!"

"Salvete, Livia et Corinna!"

Translation:Hello, Livia and Corinna!

August 27, 2019



What is the difference between Salve and Salvete?


First of all, salve itself is the imperative form of the verb 'salvere' - to be well. So it follows the rules for an imperative form, which means that 'salve' is said to a single person, while 'salvete' is said to two or more. The same goes for the farewell, 'vale' - 'vale' is for the singular, and 'valete' is for two or more. :)

Volgav vitsenanieff nivya kevach varatsach.


salvete = plural, salve = singular


Do you pronounce 'v' like 'w' in Latin?


Yes, in classical Latin v is w. Some other differences you may see is that "c" is always 'hard' like 'k' and "g" is always a hard g sound.


Besides classic, is there another pronunciation standard? Perhaps one in which "v" is pronounced as "v"?


Yes, two other common ones are ecclesiastic and English. Cicero is a good case study (with C) Classical: kikero Ecclesiastical: chichero English: sisero


I should note the English one has a short i


@ Eey91

Yes, there are several different ones. This classical pronunciation reconstruction seems fairly new, and honestly, it makes me cringe. (But then that's not how I learned it. And even though I pretty much forgot everything the pronunciation stuck.)

This page has some Audio examples towards the bottom. https://www.omniglot.com/writing/latin2.htm


Same for me except we were taught classical pronunciation in school although over half of the class was catholic. Teacher said no problem. We use only classical pronunciation in class and eccliastical in mass.


I find it odd that people would think the V is pronounced as an English W. Non of the Latin derived languages ever do that. It makes me cringe when someone says salve like an American :D


It has long been an established fact that the sound of the Latin 'v' of the Classical era is the English 'w' sound. This fact is attested to by the writings of Latin grammarians during this period who describe the way the letter is pronounced. The changes that resulted in the pronunciation of 'v' in modern Romance languages occurred in Latin from around the first and second century CE. See W. Sidney Allen, Vox Latina (Cambridge, 1978) pp. 40-42 and E.H Sturtevant, The Pronunciation of Greek and Latin (Chicago, 1920) pp.38-39 for linguistic discussions of the pronunciation of this letter.


If Marcus changes to Marce why does Livia not change? Also is Corinna changed ?


The vocative case is used to address Livia and Corinna. For 1st declension nouns the vocative ending is the same as the nominative. For nouns in the 2nd declension the vocative ends in -e rather than -us as it does in the nominative case.


I don't understand any of this. Where can I learn what all those grammatical terms mean?


I would highly suggest a book called "English Grammar for Students of Latin" if you are new to grammar terminology.


Sounds good, I wish my library had a copy!


Does your area have interlibrary loan? You can get a used copy on amazon for like $2 also


It's not so cheap to get a copy sent to Australia, but thanks for the suggestions, Nick. There are probably plenty of reference materials I could dig up, but my main language of interest for now is French :-)


thank nick ill surely read it because im not that good at this


Thanks for answering.


Thank you, I'm sure you must be very lingo-learned, but please have mercy. I don't understand your explanation, and yet I can see that you have the answer so I'm frustrated. I did not take a foreign language at university. Most of those classifications, i.e. "For 1st declension nouns the vocative ending is the same as the nomitive." leave me feeling really stupid. I don't know "declension", "vocative", or "nomative." I surely couldn't determine if a declension were first or second. If there is a way you could pass on your knowledge more simply I would be most grateful. I feel like you should come with subtitles. I do really admire your knowledge of the subject but I wish I understood what you're trying to tell me. Thanks for trying.


This is a big subject but let's see if I can shed some light on it for you.

The first thing to be aware of is that Latin is an inflected language, that is to say the endings of words change to indicate how they fit into a sentence. Words fall into different categories known as parts of speech. This seems to be universal for all languages including of course both English and Latin. The part of speech we are concerned with here is nouns. Nouns are words that stand for things either real or imaginary. So "table" is a noun, and so is "idea". You can't see or touch an idea but as far as grammar is concerned it's just as much a thing as a table is.

Specific names given to people, animals, places and other things are also nouns and they are known as proper nouns. So "Livia" and "Corinna" are both proper nouns. They're also people of course but the words themselves, Livia and Corinna, are nouns. I can say, "the woman is beautiful," or "Corinna is beautiful." The words "woman" and "Corinna" function in exactly the same way in the two sentences, and both are nouns.

Now in English, nouns generally have just two forms: singular and plural. If we say, "Corinna is a beautiful woman," we are using both our example nouns in their singular form. But we might know two people both called Corinna. Then we could say, "The two women over there are the Corinnas." This time we're using our example nouns in the plural.

With Latin the situation is a bit more complex. Latin nouns can still be singular or plural but within those categories they have other forms too. These different forms are known as cases, and these cases are: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, ablative and vocative. Additionally all nouns belong to one of three genders: masculine, feminine or neuter. So any particular form of a noun can be identified by number, case and gender.

The above is quite a lot to take in but there's a bit more to come. When we look in detail at the way Latin nouns change by case and number they fall naturally into five groups. These groups are known as declensions, and rather unimaginatively they have the names 1st declension, 2nd declension and so on. You can find tables of the case endings of the five declensions here. There's a footnote at the bottom about the vocative. It's not included in the tables as it's usually the same as the nominative. It's only in 2nd declension nouns ending in -us or -ius that it changes.

In the tables you'll see that some of the vowels are shown with a bar over the top. This bar is known as a macron and it's used to indicate when the vowels are long. The Duolingo course doesn't bother with vowel length but if you want to go beyond this course and study Latin seriously, vowel length becomes very important, particulary in poetry.

As to when these cases are used, there's a page on that here. Note that this mentions a seventh case, the locative. This only exists in names of towns, small islands, and a very small number of other nouns. The locative takes the same form as the genitive in the 1st and 2nd declensions, and the same as the ablative in the 3rd declension.

There's a huge amount here and it's quite technical so try not to be intimidated, and give yourself a few days to read it through several times and digest it. If anything is still unclear after that please post again and I or someone else will try to explain further. If you can learn the nouns-declensions table by heart you will be a total star. It's a big challenge but it will really pay off in the long run.


@dkahn400 - thank you very much for your explanation! It is very helpful for the beginner in grammar!


I feel exactly like you do. As soon as the technical explanations come out, my brain does a 180 and runs for cover. My solution is, I work on intuition: just keep plugging away until I get some kind of feeling for it. :)


Well, I said greetings instead of hello, and they took it, so i really have no complaints :)


Is salve not hello as well?


Salve is singular

Salvete is plural

Since there are two people Salvete is used.


Can you change out Livia and corinna for any name no matter the language?


I also had problems with that because I misspelled Corinna and it flagged as wrong


Because it is wrong, just like spelling your name 'Natan' would be wrong.


Yes, but if the name has a 2nd declension ending you need to use the vocative case. -us becomes -e, -ius becomes -i. So greeting Quintus and Lucius becomes salvete Quinte et Luci.


Bad audio when the speaker says "salvete".


I keep writing the correct solution but keeps saying wrong


Doesn't 'greetings' mean sane as hello.


Wow! Lovely new voice. More please.


Is there someone who understood Livia and not Miria?,


I only forgot the "!" and it marked me wrong lol


Man wish this had audio by polymathy or metatron because this american accent is lame


Not just the accent which is actually forgivable, we all have our own accents, but there are many outright errors in the voice samples. Luke Ranieri's (Polymathy's) spoken Latin is superb. If you listen to Luke conversing with Latinists from various parts of the world you will hear their different accents, but they all use the correct restored classical pronunciation.


This speaker is hard to understand. Livia spunds like maria. Screwed me twice.


Report it. As I understand it, the Latin course is in beta.


I put the answer in english and counted it wrong when it should have been correct


Vita dura est.


Is the "t" in "et" supposed to be silent? I can't hear it here, but I could hear it in previous examples.


No, it should be pronounced.


does matter if i miss spell thier name?


Tells me to type the Latin phrase I hear. I do and it tells me it's wrong. But I typed it correctly.


So I wrote the correct answer, without the "!" And it didn't accept it, and when I did it correctly (exactly like the answer is) it still didn't accept it. It's broken

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