-ne - enclitic particle appended to the word pertaining to the aspect in question • [ in this context, the yes / no question is not, [ do or don't you live, but [ in or not in Rome ] • [ Romaene habitas? - seems to be the real point of inquiry - the point of inquiry is [ is where you are inhabiting in, or not in Rome, not • do or don't you inhabit ]
Rōmae - Locative Case
See this link from the beginning of the lesson. https://www.duolingo.com/skill/la/Greetings/tips-and-notes
Well, yes and no. Classical Latin doesn't have a locative case per se. The original suffixes of the locative case were transported from the Old Latin and then merged with the genitive. Therefore it's actually a genitive in the function of locative. It's worth mentioning that this form is used just for the names of cities and some islands and for some frequently used terms (like "domi"). You can't decline other words in this way.
Are you only able to add -ne to the verb or to other words as well? For example, if you were clarifying a statement as if you didn't hear them correctly:
"Do you have the phone?"
"The phone?" (In latin this object would have -ne at the end in theory but I don't know the name for this)
The -ne particle is added to the first word of the sentence, whether it's a verb or not.
The question of whether there should be a Latin word for telephone (or coffee) is an interesting one. Of course there is not a classical word. Some purists would say we should not coin new words but instead make use of circumlocutions such as "machine for talking at great distance". I say neologisms are essential and do no harm as long as we are clear which words are classical Latin and which aren't. For telephone we could use auscultabulum, telephonium, or, for a cell phone, cellularis.