Since romance languages generally skip over females [like French does] it would probably just be "discipulos" but if whoever is speaking has the time for it, like our Latin teachers did at school, it would be: "Salvete discipuli discipulaeque!". "-que" is a suffixed particle when you list stuff and is just translated as "and". There is no genus for a mix of both so you have to take your time and say "[male] students and [female] students.".
Examples of the neutral? Yes, if you know Old French, I could give you examples, about its evolution. For whoever who know a bit of ancien français or moyen français, it's obvious.
People makes the confusion between the grammatical gender, and the real gender, and it's completely different, at least in French, very often it has no link.
When you use "la personne" to refer to a man, it's not the real gender. It's the grammatical gender. When you say that a woman has "un sein", and male organs are feminine, it's not real gender, etc...
The grammatical neuter in French is written often like a masculine. When I say "un enfant" it's neutral. Not un= male!
"Masculine overweight feminine" is only a mnemonic rule, that we say to French pupils or learners, it's not the reality, as it ignores the difference grammatical gender/real gender. But as people know less and less the subtilties of the French langage, they tend to think it's a reality, when it's only a way to remember how to write.
"Masculine overweight feminine" (!). I think you are referring to Le masculin l’emporte sur le féminin (The masculine prevails over the feminine). A similar grammatical generalization in English is (the perhaps more gallant-sounding!) "The masculine embraces the feminine".
Discipulus is masculine and discipula is feminine, both singular. They're also in the nominative case, which means they're the subject of the sentence (So, "the student" in "The student eats food". Discipuli is masculine nominative plural. "The students" in "The students eat food". Discipulos, though, is masculine accusative (direct object) plural. "The students" in "The monster eats the students." Case is something that's pretty confusing at first, but you'll eventually get the hang of it if you keep at it. Don't fret about the why of case or why there are so many different forms at first. Just start getting used to singular vs. plural and later on nominative vs accusative..